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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2021

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from            to           .

Commission File Number 001-33451

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

s

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

    

90-0136863
(IRS Employer Identification No.)

10 Post Office Square, Suite 1000, Boston, MA

(Address of principal executive offices)

02109
(Zip code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (857) 254-5555

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock

ALBO

The Nasdaq Capital Market

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes   No

As of July 29, 2021, there were 19,255,824 shares of Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share, outstanding.

Table of Contents

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

     

Page

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements (unaudited)

6

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020

6

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 and 2020

7

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 and 2020

8

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 and 2020

9

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 and 2020

10

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

11

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

20

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

32

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

32

PART II — OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

34

Item 1A. Risk Factors

34

Item 6. Exhibits

35

Signatures

37

All brand names, trademarks or service marks appearing in this quarterly report are the property of their respective owners. The registrant’s use or display of another party’s trademark, service mark, trade dress or product in this quarterly report is not intended to, and does not, imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of, the registrant by such other party.

2

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This quarterly report includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, which we refer to as the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which we refer to as the Exchange Act, that relate to future events or to our future operating or financial performance. Any forward-looking statement involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statement. Forward-looking statements include statements, other than statements of historical fact, about, among other things:

the progress, number, scope, cost, duration or results of our development activities, nonclinical studies and clinical trials of Bylvay™ (odevixibat), elobixibat, A3907, A2342 or any of our other product candidates or programs, such as the target indication(s) for development or approval, the size, design, population, conduct, cost, objective or endpoints of any clinical trial, or the timing for initiation or completion of or availability of results from any clinical trial (including BOLD, our pivotal clinical trial of Bylvay in patients with biliary atresia or ASSERT, our pivotal trial of Bylvay in Alagille syndrome, or ALGS) for submission, review or approval of any regulatory filing, or for meeting with regulatory authorities;
the potential benefits that may be derived from any of our product candidates;
the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our existing product candidates, any product candidates that we may develop, and any related restrictions, limitations, or warnings in the label of any approved product candidates;
any payment that EA Pharma Co., Ltd., or EA Pharma, may make to us or any other action or decision that EA Pharma may make concerning elobixibat or our business relationship;
the potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business operations or financial condition;
our future operations, financial position, revenues, costs, expenses, uses of cash, capital requirements, our need for additional financing or the period for which our existing cash resources will be sufficient to meet our operating requirements; or
our strategies, prospects, plans, expectations, forecasts or objectives.

Words such as, but not limited to, “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “forecast,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “targets,” “likely,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” “scheduled” and similar expressions or phrases, or the negative of those expressions or phrases, are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this report, we caution you that these statements are based on our estimates or projections of the future that are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, level of activity, performance, experience or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement. Actual results, level of activity, performance, experience or achievements may differ materially from those expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement as a result of various important factors, including our critical accounting policies and risks and uncertainties relating, among other things, to:

the design, size, duration and endpoints for, and results from BOLD, our pivotal trial of Bylvay in biliary atresia, and ASSERT our pivotal trial of Bylvay in ALGS, or any other trials that will be required to obtain marketing approval for Bylvay to treat patients with Biliary atresia, ALGS or any other pediatric cholestatic liver disease or for A3907 and A2342 as potential treatments for adult liver and viral diseases;

3

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whether favorable findings from clinical trials of Bylvay to date, including findings in our completed Phase 3 clinical trial in PFIC and findings in indications other than PFIC, will be predictive of results from future clinical trials, including our pivotal trial of Bylvay in biliary atresia and pivotal trial of Bylvay in ALGS;
the outcome and interpretation by regulatory authorities of an ongoing third-party study pooling and analyzing long-term PFIC patient data;
the timing for initiation or completion of, or for availability of data from, our pivotal trial of Bylvay in biliary atresia and our pivotal trial of Bylvay in ALGS, and the outcomes of such trials;
delays or other challenges in the recruitment of patients for the pivotal trial of Bylvay in biliary atresia and the pivotal trial of Bylvay in ALGS;
the COVID-19 pandemic, which may negatively impact the conduct of, and the timing of initiation, enrollment, completion and reporting with respect to, our clinical trials; negatively impact the supply of drug product for our clinical and preclinical programs; and/or result in other adverse impacts on our business;
the competitive environment and commercial opportunity for a treatment for PFIC and potentially other orphan pediatric cholestatic liver diseases;
the conduct and results of clinical trials and nonclinical studies and assessments of Bylvay, A3907, A2342 or any of our other product candidates and programs, including the performance of third parties engaged to execute them and difficulties or delays in patient enrollment and data analysis;
the medical benefit that may be derived from Bylvay, A3907, A2342 or any of our other product candidates;
the extent to which our agreement with EA Pharma for elobixibat generates nondilutive income for us;
the timing and success of submission, acceptance and approval of regulatory filings and any related restrictions, limitations or warnings in the label of any approved product candidates;
whether we are able to effectively commercialize Bylvay in patients with PFIC;
the significant control or influence that EA Pharma has over the commercialization of elobixibat in Japan and the development and commercialization of elobixibat in EA Pharma’s other licensed territories;
whether we elect to seek and, if so, our ability to establish a license or other partnering transaction with a third party for elobixibat in the United States or Europe;
the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, costs, future revenues, uses of cash and capital requirements;
our ability to obtain additional financing on reasonable terms, or at all;
our ability to establish additional licensing, collaboration or similar arrangements on favorable terms and our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;
the success of competing third-party products or product candidates;
our ability to successfully commercialize any approved product candidates, including their rate and degree of market acceptance;

4

Table of Contents

whether we are able to maintain compliance with the terms and conditions of our loan and security agreement with Hercules Capital, Inc.;
our ability to expand and protect our intellectual property estate;
regulatory developments in the United States and other countries;
the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting;
the performance of our third-party suppliers, manufacturers and contract research organizations and our ability to obtain alternative sources of raw materials;
our ability to attract and retain key personnel; and
our ability to comply with regulatory requirements relating to our business, and the costs of compliance with those requirements, including those on data privacy and security.

These and other risks and uncertainties are described in greater detail under the caption “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of Part I of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, in Item 1A of Part II of this quarterly report, and in other filings that we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. As a result of the risks and uncertainties, the results or events indicated by the forward-looking statements may not occur. We caution you not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement.

In addition, any forward-looking statement in this quarterly report represents our views only as of the filing date of this quarterly report and should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments may cause our views to change. Although we may elect to update these forward-looking statements publicly at some point in the future, we specifically disclaim any obligation to do so, except as required by applicable law. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.

5

Table of Contents

PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(in thousands, except share data)

(unaudited)

    

June 30, 

    

December 31,

2021

2020

Assets

Current assets:

Cash and cash equivalents

$

186,286

$

251,272

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

8,966

 

10,593

Total current assets

 

195,252

 

261,865

Property and equipment, net

868

478

Goodwill

 

17,260

 

17,260

Other assets

 

6,117

 

6,004

Total assets

$

219,497

$

285,607

Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity

Current liabilities:

Accounts payable

$

5,704

$

5,283

Accrued expenses

 

18,047

 

19,051

Current portion of note payable, net of discount

 

1,992

 

Other current liabilities

 

1,250

 

948

Total current liabilities

 

26,993

 

25,282

Liability related to sale of future royalties

67,834

65,894

Note payable, net of discount

7,865

9,621

Other long-term liabilities

3,301

3,579

Total liabilities

 

105,993

 

104,376

Stockholders’ Equity:

Preferred stock, $0.01 par value per share — 50,000,000 authorized at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020; 0 and 0 issued and outstanding at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively

Common stock, $0.01 par value per share — 60,000,000 authorized at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020; 19,240,295 and 19,107,040 issued and outstanding at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively

 

192

 

191

Additional paid-in capital

 

464,665

 

456,472

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

(4,379)

 

(8,612)

Accumulated deficit

 

(346,974)

 

(266,820)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

113,504

 

181,231

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

$

219,497

$

285,607

See accompanying notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

6

Table of Contents

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

(unaudited)

    

Three Months Ended June 30, 

    

Six Months Ended June 30, 

    

    

2021

    

2020

    

2021

    

2020

    

Revenue

$

2,428

$

1,912

$

4,394

$

3,461

Operating expenses:

Research and development

 

20,894

 

18,397

 

40,837

 

34,527

General and administrative

 

16,940

 

8,474

 

32,213

 

16,627

Other operating (income) expense, net

 

(2,374)

 

(6,744)

 

4,154

 

72

Total operating expenses

 

35,460

 

20,127

 

77,204

 

51,226

Operating loss

 

(33,032)

 

(18,215)

 

(72,810)

 

(47,765)

Interest expense, net

 

(3,389)

 

(2,388)

 

(7,344)

 

(4,326)

Net loss

$

(36,421)

$

(20,603)

$

(80,154)

$

(52,091)

Net loss per share attributable to holders of common stock:

Net loss per common share - basic and diluted

$

(1.90)

$

(1.38)

$

(4.18)

$

(3.58)

Weighted-average common shares used to compute basic and diluted net loss per common share

 

19,200,747

 

14,981,756

 

19,196,798

 

14,556,986

See accompanying notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

7

Table of Contents

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss

(in thousands)

(unaudited)

    

Three Months Ended June 30, 

    

Six Months Ended June 30, 

    

    

2021

    

2020

    

2021

    

2020

    

Net loss

$

(36,421)

$

(20,603)

$

(80,154)

$

(52,091)

Other comprehensive (loss) income:

Foreign currency translation adjustment

 

(2,721)

 

(6,565)

 

4,233

 

(278)

Total other comprehensive (loss) income

 

(2,721)

 

(6,565)

 

4,233

 

(278)

Total comprehensive loss

$

(39,142)

$

(27,168)

$

(75,921)

$

(52,369)

See accompanying notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

8

Table of Contents

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

(in thousands, except share data)

(unaudited)

Accumulated

    

    

  

Additional

    

Other

    

    

Total

Common Stock

Paid-In

Comprehensive

Accumulated

Stockholders’

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Income (loss)

    

Deficit

    

Equity

Balance--December 31, 2020

19,107,040

$

191

$

456,472

$

(8,612)

$

(266,820)

$

181,231

Stock-based compensation expense

3,062

3,062

Exercise of options and vesting of RSUs

85,765

1

403

404

Other comprehensive income

6,954

6,954

Net loss

(43,733)

(43,733)

Balance--March 31, 2021

19,192,805

$

192

$

459,937

$

(1,658)

$

(310,553)

$

147,918

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

3,504

 

3,504

Exercise of options and vesting of RSUs

47,490

 

 

1,224

 

1,224

Other comprehensive loss

 

 

 

(2,721)

(2,721)

Net loss

 

 

 

(36,421)

(36,421)

Balance--June 30, 2021

19,240,295

$

192

$

464,665

$

(4,379)

$

(346,974)

$

113,504

Accumulated

    

    

  

Additional

    

Other

    

    

Total

Common Stock

Paid-In

Comprehensive

Accumulated

Stockholders’

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Income (loss)

    

Deficit

    

Equity

Balance--December 31, 2019

12,749,443

$

127

$

245,769

$

6,452

$

(159,187)

$

93,161

Stock-based compensation expense

2,381

2,381

Exercise of options and vesting of RSUs

37,662

94

94

Issuance of common stock, net of costs

2,190,750

22

42,977

42,999

Other comprehensive income

6,287

6,287

Net loss

(31,488)

(31,488)

Balance--March 31, 2020

14,977,855

$

149

$

291,221

$

12,739

$

(190,675)

$

113,434

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 

2,603

 

2,603

Exercise of options and vesting of RSUs

11,166

 

 

138

 

138

Issuance of warrants

 

 

113

 

113

Other comprehensive loss

(6,565)

(6,565)

Net loss

 

 

 

(20,603)

(20,603)

Balance--June 30, 2020

14,989,021

$

149

$

294,075

$

6,174

$

(211,278)

$

89,120

See accompanying notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Albireo Pharma, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(in thousands)

(unaudited)

Six Months Ended June 30, 

    

2021

    

2020

Cash flows from operating activities:

Net loss

$

(80,154)

$

(52,091)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

  

 

Accretion of liability related to sale of future royalties

 

6,248

  

 

4,385

Accretion of debt discount and amortization of issuance costs

 

235

  

 

27

Depreciation and amortization

 

75

  

 

77

Share based compensation expense

 

6,566

  

 

4,984

Foreign currency adjustments

4,127

93

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

  

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

1,596

  

 

1,808

Other assets

 

159

  

 

171

Accounts payable

 

478

  

 

5

Accrued expenses

 

(1,103)

  

 

(5,313)

Other current and long-term liabilities

 

(4,412)

  

 

(1,008)

Net cash used in operating activities

 

(66,185)

  

 

(46,862)

Cash flows from investing activities:

 

  

 

Purchase of property and equipment

 

(279)

  

 

(78)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

(279)

  

 

(78)

Cash flows from financing activities:

 

  

 

Proceeds from issuance of note payable, net of issuance costs

 

  

 

9,521

Proceeds from issuance of common stock, net of issuance costs

 

  

 

42,999

Proceeds from royalty agreement, net of issuance costs

14,750

Proceeds from exercise of options

1,627

232

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

1,627

  

 

67,502

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

 

(149)

  

 

(385)

Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents

 

(64,986)

  

 

20,177

Cash and cash equivalents—beginning of period

 

251,272

  

 

131,843

Cash and cash equivalents—end of period

$

186,286

$

152,020

Supplemental disclosures of cash and non-cash activities

 

  

  

 

  

Fixed assets included in accrued expenses

$

186

  

$

Warrants issued with long-term debt

$

$

113

Deferred issuance costs included in accrued expenses

$

  

$

34

See accompanying notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Albireo Pharma, Inc.

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

(unaudited)

1. Summary of significant accounting policies and basis of presentation

Organization

Albireo Pharma, Inc. (the Company), is a commercial-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of novel bile acid modulators to treat orphan pediatric liver diseases and other liver and gastrointestinal diseases and disorders. The Company’s product pipeline includes Bylvay (odevixibat) approved in the US and Europe, elobixibat, approved in Japan for the treatment of chronic constipation, a Phase 1 product candidate and multiple preclinical candidates. Bylvay (odevixibat) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on July 20, 2021 for the treatment of pruritis in patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) ages 3 months or older, and authorized by the European Medicines Agency on July 16, 2021 for the treatment of PFIC in patients 6 months or older. Bylvay is also in Phase 3 development for the treatment of biliary atresia and Alagille syndrome (ALGS), each a rare, life-threatening disorder affecting young children.

Since its inception, the Company has devoted substantially all of its resources to its research and development efforts, including activities to develop its product candidates, prepare for potential commercialization of Bylvay in PFIC in 2021 and to provide general and administrative support for these operations.

The Company has primarily funded its operations with proceeds from the sales of common stock, the sale of royalties to HealthCare Royalty Partners III, L.P. (HCR) and proceeds from the issuance of debt. As of June 30, 2021, the Company has raised an aggregate of $356.7 million through the issuance of common stock, net of issuance costs, $59.3 million from the sale of its future royalties and $9.5 million through the Loan and Security Agreement, net of issuance costs.

The Company has incurred significant operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since inception. The Company expects to continue to incur significant expenses and operating losses for the foreseeable future. In addition, the Company anticipates that its expenses will increase significantly in connection with ongoing activities to support the launch of Bylvay for PFIC and the advancement of Bylvay into later stage clinical trials and providing administrative support.

The Company anticipates generating low single digit U.S. $ million revenue from sales of Bylvay in 2021. As a result, the Company will need substantial additional funding to support its continued operations and growth strategy. Until such a time as the Company can generate significant revenue from product sales, if ever, the Company expects to finance its operations through the sale of equity, debt financings or other capital sources, including collaborations with other companies or other strategic transactions. The Company may be unable to raise additional funds or enter into such other agreements on favorable terms, or at all. If the Company fails to raise capital or enter into such agreements as, and when, needed, the Company may have to significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development and commercialization of one or more of its product candidates or delay its pursuit of potential in-licenses or acquisitions.

As of June 30, 2021, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $186.3 million. Management believes that its cash and cash equivalent resources at June 30, 2021 will be sufficient to allow the Company to fund its current operating plan through at least the next twelve months from the issuance of these financial statements.

The Company is subject to those risks associated with any biopharmaceutical company that has substantial expenditures for research and development. There can be no assurance that the Company’s research and development

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projects will be successful, that products developed will obtain necessary regulatory approval, or that any approved product will be commercially viable. In addition, the Company operates in an environment of rapid technological change and is largely dependent on the services of its employees and consultants. If the Company fails to become profitable or is unable to sustain profitability on a continuing basis, then it may be unable to continue its operations at planned levels and be forced to reduce its operations.

Basis of presentation

The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for interim financial information, and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements and should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (including normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for fair presentation have been included in the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements. The results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full fiscal year, any other interim period or any future fiscal year. The Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared on a basis consistent with prior periods.

Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to the authoritative GAAP as found in the Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) and Accounting Standards Update (ASU) of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB).

Principles of consolidation

The accompanying Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Company and its direct or indirect wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Foreign currency translation

Functional currency

Items included in the financial statements of each entity comprising the Company are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (the functional currency).

Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions in each entity comprising the Company are remeasured into the functional currency of the entity using the exchange rates prevailing at the respective transaction dates. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the remeasurement at period-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognized within other operating (income) expense, net in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.

The results and financial position of the Company that have a functional currency different from the USD are translated into the presentation currency as follows:

a.assets and liabilities presented are translated at the closing exchange rate as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020;
b.income and expenses for each statement of comprehensive loss are translated at the average exchange rate for the applicable period; and

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c.significant transactions use the closing exchange rate on the date of the transaction.

All resulting exchange differences arising from such translations are recognized directly in other comprehensive income (loss) and presented as a separate component of equity.

Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Management must apply significant judgment in this process. On an ongoing basis, the Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions, including but not limited to accruals, including its clinical trial accruals, realizability of deferred tax assets and the accretion of interest on the monetization liability. Actual results could materially differ from these estimates.

Revenue recognition

Milestone Payments

At the inception of each arrangement that includes development milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether the milestones are considered probable of being achieved and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within the control of the Company or the licensee, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. The Company evaluates factors such as the scientific, clinical, regulatory, commercial, and other risks that must be overcome to achieve the particular milestone in making this assessment. There is considerable judgment involved in determining whether it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the Company reevaluates the probability of achievement of all milestones subject to constraint and, if necessary, adjusts its estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment.

Royalties

For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on a level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, the Company recognizes revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).

In 2012, the Company entered into a license agreement (the Agreement) with EA Pharma Co., Ltd. (EA Pharma, formerly Ajinomoto Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd.) to develop a select product candidate (elobixibat) for registration and subsequent commercialization in select markets. In conjunction with the Agreement, the Company granted EA Pharma an exclusive license to its intellectual property for development and commercialization activities in the designated field and territories. The Company has completed all of its performance obligations under the Agreement.

As of June 30, 2021, the Company is eligible to receive an additional regulatory-based milestone payment under the Agreement of $5.1 million if a specified regulatory event is achieved for elobixibat. The cash payments and any other payments for milestones and royalties from EA Pharma are non-refundable, non-creditable and not subject to set-off.

The Agreement will continue until the last royalty period for any product in the territory, which is defined as the period when there are no remaining patent rights or regulatory exclusivity in place for any products subject to royalties. EA Pharma may terminate the Agreement upon 180 days’ prior written notice to the Company. Either party may terminate the Agreement for the other party’s uncured material breach or insolvency and in certain other circumstances agreed to by the parties.

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Monetization of Future Royalties

In December 2017, the Company entered into a royalty interest acquisition agreement (RIAA) with HCR pursuant to which it sold to HCR the right to receive all royalties from sales in Japan and sales milestones achieved from any covered territory potentially payable to the Company under the Agreement, up to a specified maximum “cap” amount of $78.8 million, based on the funds the Company received from HCR. In January 2018, the Company received $44.5 million from HCR, net of certain transaction expenses, under the RIAA. On June 8, 2020, the parties entered into an amendment to the RIAA pursuant to which HCR agreed to pay the Company an additional $14.8 million, net of certain transaction expenses, in exchange for the elimination of the (i) $78.8 million cap amount on HCR’s rights to receive royalties on sales in Japan and sales milestones for elobixibat in certain other territories that may become payable by EA Pharma and (ii) the $15.0 million payable to the Company if a specified sales milestone is achieved for elobixibat in Japan. The Company is obligated to make royalty interest payments to HCR under the RIAA only to the extent it receives future Japanese royalties, sales milestones or other specified payments from EA Pharma. Although the Company sold its rights to receive royalties from the sales of elobixibat in Japan, as a result of its ongoing involvement in the cash flows related to these royalties, the Company will continue to account for these royalties and milestones as revenue. Upon receipt of the payments from HCR the Company recorded net cash totaling $59.3 million as a liability related to sale of future royalties (royalty obligation). The royalty obligation will be amortized using the effective interest rate method.

The following table shows the activity within the liability account for the six-month period ended June 30, 2021:

    

June 30, 2021

    

(in thousands) 

Liability related to sale of future royalties—beginning balance

 

$

68,594

Accretion of interest expense on liability related to royalty monetization

6,248

Repayment of the liability

(4,631)

Liability related to sale of future royalties—ending balance

 

$

70,211

Less current portion classified within accrued expenses

(2,377)

Long-term liability related to sale of future royalties

 

$

67,834

The Company records estimated royalties due for the current period in accrued expenses until the payment is received from EA Pharma at which time the Company then remits payment to HCR. As royalties are remitted to HCR, the balance of the royalty obligation will be effectively repaid over the life of the RIAA. In order to determine the accretion of the royalty obligation, the Company is required to estimate the total amount of future royalty payments to be received and submitted to HCR, as noted above. The sum of these amounts less the $59.3 million proceeds the Company received will be recorded as interest expense over the life of the royalty obligation. At June 30, 2021, the Company’s estimate of its total interest expense resulted in an annual effective interest rate of approximately 18.8%.

The Company periodically assesses the estimated royalty payments to HCR and to the extent such payments are greater or less than its initial estimates or the timing of such payments is materially different than its original estimates, the Company will prospectively adjust the accretion of interest on the royalty obligation. There are a number of factors that could materially affect the amount and the timing of royalty payments, most of which are not within the Company’s control. Such factors include, but are not limited to, the rate of elobixibat prescriptions, the number of doses administered, the introduction of competing products, manufacturing or other delays, patent protection, adverse events that result in governmental health authority imposed restrictions on the use of the drug products, significant changes in foreign exchange rates as the royalties remitted to HCR are in U.S. dollars while sales of elobixibat are in Japanese yen, and sales never achieving forecasted numbers, which would result in reduced royalty payments and reduced non-cash interest expense over the life of the royalty obligation. To the extent future royalties result in an amount less than the liability, the Company is not obligated to fund any such shortfall.

Recent accounting pronouncements

There are no recently issued accounting pronouncements the Company has not yet adopted that will materially impact the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

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2. Fair Value of financial instruments

When measuring the fair value of financial instruments, the Company evaluates valuation techniques such as the market approach, the income approach and the cost approach. A three-level valuation hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques that are used to measure fair value, is based upon whether such inputs are observable or unobservable.

Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect market assumptions made by the reporting entity. The three-level hierarchy for the inputs to valuation techniques is briefly summarized as follows:

Level 1—Observable inputs such as quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical instruments in active markets;

Level 2—Observable inputs such as quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, or model-derived valuations whose significant inputs are observable for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities; and

Level 3—Unobservable inputs that reflect the reporting entity’s estimate of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.

The following tables represent information about the Company’s financial assets that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis (in thousands):

June 30, 2021

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Cash Equivalents:

    

Money market funds

$

181,190

$

$

Total

$

181,190

$

$

December 31, 2020

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Cash Equivalents:

    

Money market funds

$

242,854

$

$

Total

$

242,854

$

$

The Company’s financial instruments consist mainly of cash equivalents, prepaid expenses and other current assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses, other current liabilities, and note payable. The carrying amounts of cash equivalents, prepaid expenses and other current liabilities, accounts payable, accrued expenses, and other current liabilities approximate their estimated fair value due to their short-term maturities. At June 30, 2021, the Loan and Security Agreement with Hercules Capital, Inc., the Company believes the carrying value approximates the fair value of the note payable.

3. Commitments and contingencies

Agreements with CROs and CMOs

As of June 30, 2021, the Company had various agreements with CROs and CMOs for the conduct of specified research and development activities and based on the terms of the respective agreements, the Company is contractually obligated to make future payments of up to $10.7 million upon the completion of contracted work.

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4. Net loss per share

Basic net loss per share, is calculated by dividing the net loss attributable to holders of common stock by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding. Diluted net loss per share, is calculated by dividing the net loss attributable to holders of common stock by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding. If the Company were in a net income position, diluted net income per share would be calculated by dividing the net income attributable to holders of common stock by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock plus dilutive common stock equivalents outstanding.

The following table sets forth the computation of Basic and Diluted net loss per share (in thousands, except for share and per share data):

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Six Months Ended June 30, 

    

2021

    

2020

    

2021

    

2020

    

Basic and Diluted net loss per share:

Numerator

Net loss

$

(36,421)

  

$

(20,603)

$

(80,154)

  

$

(52,091)

Denominator

 

 

 

 

Weighted average number of shares outstanding

 

19,200,747

 

14,981,756

 

19,196,798

 

14,556,986

Basic and Diluted net loss per share

$

(1.90)

  

$

(1.38)

$

(4.18)

  

$

(3.58)

The following outstanding common stock equivalents were excluded from the computation of Diluted net loss per share for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 because including them would have been anti-dilutive:

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Six Months Ended June 30, 

    

2021

    

2020

    

2021

    

2020

    

Options to purchase common stock, RSUs and warrants

3,178,079

2,439,930

3,178,079

2,439,930

5. Income taxes

The Company did not record a tax provision or benefit for the six months ended June 30, 2021 or 2020. The Company has continued to maintain a full valuation allowance against its net deferred tax assets. The Company has had an overall net operating loss position since its inception.

6. Note Payable

2020 Loan and Security Agreement

On June 8, 2020, the Company entered into a Loan and Security Agreement with the several banks and other financial institutions or entities from time to time parties to the Loan and Security Agreement, as lenders, or collectively referred to as the Lender, and Hercules Capital, Inc., in its capacity as administrative agent and collateral agent for itself and Lender (in such capacity, the Agent or Hercules). The Loan and Security Agreement provides for term loans in an aggregate principal amount of up to $80.0 million to be delivered in multiple tranches (the Term Loans). The tranches consist of (i) a term loan advance to Company in an aggregate principal amount of up to $15.0 million, of which (A) the Company agreed to borrow an aggregate principal amount of $10.0 million on the date on which all conditions to the funding of the Term Loans by the Lender were met (the Closing Date), but the Company did not request that the Lender make an additional term loan advance to the Company in an aggregate principal amount of $5.0 million prior to December 15, 2020 as permitted under the agreement, (ii) subject to the achievement of certain initial performance milestones, or Performance Milestone I, the Company has the right to request that the Lender make additional term loan advances to the Company in an aggregate principal amount of up to $20.0 million from January 1, 2021 through December 15, 2021 in minimum increments of $10.0 million, and (iii) subject to the Lender’s investment committee’s sole discretion, the Company has the right to request that the Lender make additional term loan advances to the Company in an aggregate principal amount of up to $45.0 million through March

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31, 2022 in minimum increments of $5.0 million. As of June 30, 2021, we borrowed an aggregate principal amount of $10.0 million. An aggregate principal amount of up to $20.0 million remains available for future borrowings upon request and an aggregate principal amount of up to $45.0 million remains available for future borrowing subject to approval from lender. The Company is required to pay an end of term fee (the End of Term Charge) equal to 6.95% of the aggregate principal amount of the Term Loans advances upon repayment.

The Term Loans mature on January 1, 2024, which is extendable to June 1, 2024 upon achievement of Performance Milestone I (the Maturity Date).

The Term Loan bears interest at an annual rate equal to the greater of 9.15% and 9.15% plus the prime rate of interest minus 3.25%. Borrowings under the Loan and Security Agreement are repayable in monthly interest-only payments through January 1, 2022 and extendable to (i) July 1, 2022 upon achievement of Performance Milestone I and (ii) July 1, 2023 upon achievement of certain additional performance milestones. After the interest-only payment period, borrowings under the Loan and Security Agreement are repayable in equal monthly payments of principal and accrued interest until the Maturity Date. At the Company’s option, the Company may elect to prepay all, but not less than all, of the outstanding term loan by paying the entire principal balance and all accrued and unpaid interest thereon plus a prepayment charge equal to the following percentage of the principal amount being prepaid: 2.0% of the principal amount outstanding if the prepayment occurs after the first nine months following the Closing Date, but on or prior to 24 months following the Closing Date, and 1.0% of the principal amount outstanding at any time thereafter but prior to the Maturity Date.

In connection with the Loan and Security Agreement, the Company granted Agent a security interest senior to any current and future debts and to any security interest, in all of the Company’s right, title, and interest in, to and under all of Company’s property and other assets, and certain equity interests and accounts of Albireo AB, subject to limited exceptions including the Company’s intellectual property. The Loan and Security Agreement also contains certain events of default, representations, warranties and non-financial covenants of the Company.

The debt discount and issuance costs are being accreted to the principal amount of debt and being amortized from the date of issuance through the Maturity Date to interest expense using the effective-interest rate method. The effective interest rate of the outstanding debt under the Loan and Security Agreement is approximately 15.3%.

As of June 30, 2021 the carrying value of the note payable consists of the following:

June 30, 2021

(in thousands)

Note payable, including End of Term Charge

10,695

Debt discount, net of accretion

(838)

Less: current portion, net of discount

(1,992)

Note payable net of discount, long-term

$

7,865

During the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company recognized $0.4 million and $0.7 million, respectively, of interest expense related to the Loan and Security Agreement. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, the Company recognized $0.1 million and $0.1 million, respectively, of interest expense related to the Loan and Security Agreement.

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Estimated future principal payments due under the Loan and Security Agreement, including the contractual End of Term Charge, are as follows as of June 30, 2021:

    

Note Principal Payments

(in thousands)

Remainder of 2021

$

2022

4,553

2023

4,994

2024

1,148

As of June 30, 2021, based on Level 3 inputs and the borrowing rates available to the Company for loans with similar terms and consideration of the Company’s credit risk, the carrying value of the Company’s variable interest rate debt, excluding unamortized debt issuance costs, approximated fair value.

Warrants

Under the Loan and Security Agreement, the Company agreed to issue to Hercules warrants (the Warrants) to purchase a number of shares of common stock equal to 1% of the aggregate amount of the Term Loans that are funded, as such amounts are funded. On the Closing Date, the Company issued a Warrant for 5,311 shares of common stock. The Warrants are exercisable for a period of seven years from the date of the issuance of each Warrant at a per-share exercise price equal to $18.83, subject to certain adjustments as specified in the Warrants. In addition, the Company has granted to the holders of the Warrants certain registration rights. Specifically, the Company has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts to (i) file registration statements with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission within 60 days following the date of the issuance of each Warrant for purposes of registering the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants for resale by Hercules, and (ii) cause the registration statement to be declared effective as soon as practicable after filing, and in any event no later than 180 days after the date of the issuance of each Warrant.

The Company accounted for the Warrants as equity instruments since they were indexed to the Company’s common stock and met the criteria for classification in stockholders’ equity. The relative fair value of the Warrants related to the first tranche funding was approximately $0.1 million, and was treated as a discount to the Term Loans. This amount is being amortized to interest expense using the effective interest method over the life of the Term Loans. The Company estimated the fair value of the Warrants using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model.

7. Equity Financings

2020 Underwritten Public Offerings

In February 2020, the Company completed an underwritten public offering of 2,190,750 shares of its common stock under a universal shelf registration statement for net proceeds of approximately $43.0 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and offering expenses.

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8. Stock-based Compensation

For the six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company granted 771,450 options at a weighted average exercise price of $35.07. For the six months ended June 30, 2021, the Company granted 171,400 RSUs.

The Company recorded the following stock-based compensation expense:

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Six Months Ended June 30, 

2021

    

2020

2021

    

2020

(in thousands)

Employee awards:

Research and development expense

$

1,377

$

1,042

$

2,513

$

1,922

General and administrative expense

2,127

1,561

4,053

3,062

Total stock-based compensation expense

$

3,504

$

2,603

$

6,566

$

4,984

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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this quarterly report and our audited financial statements and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC. In addition to historical information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results, performance or experience could differ materially from what is indicated by any forward-looking statement due to various important factors, risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those set forth under “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” included elsewhere in this quarterly report or under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of Part I of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, in Item 1A of Part II of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, or in other filings that we make with the SEC.

Overview

We are a commercial-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of novel bile acid modulators to treat orphan pediatric liver diseases and other liver or gastrointestinal diseases and disorders. Our product Bylvay has been approved in the United States for the treatment of pruritis in patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) ages 3 months or older, and authorized in Europe for the treatment of PFIC in patients ages 6 months or older. PFIC is a rare, life-threatening genetic disorder affecting young children and Bylvay is the first approved drug treatment in the disease. We are also pursuing the development of Bylvay in biliary atresia and in Alagille syndrome, or ALGS, each of which is a rare, life threatening disease that affects the liver and for which there is no approved pharmacologic treatment option. We initiated a pivotal clinical trial of Bylvay in biliary atresia, the BOLD trial, in the first half of 2020, and continue to enroll patients in the trial. We expect topline results from the BOLD trial in 2024. We also initiated a pivotal trial of Bylvay in ALGS, the ASSERT trial, in the fourth quarter of 2020 and have dosed the first patients in the trial. We expect topline results from the ASSERT trial in 2022. Our most advanced product candidate in addition to Bylvay is elobixibat, which is approved in Japan for the treatment of chronic constipation. In August 2020, we announced topline results from our Phase 2 clinical trial as a treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH, and based on the results of the trial, we decided not to pursue further development of elobixibat in NAFLD or NASH. We are expanding development to compounds that are intended for adult liver and viral diseases. Our lead candidate for adult liver diseases, A3907, is a selective inhibitor of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) that has, based on animal studies, high predicted systemic bioavailability in man. As a result, A3907 has the potential to not only affect the bile acid pool by increased bile acid excretion in the stools but also through other pathways, including increased urinary bile acid excretion. This unique approach may yield greater dosing flexibility, greater efficacy and lower rates of adverse events associated with the category, such as diarrhea. We initiated a Phase 1 clinical trial, with the first patient dosed in the first quarter of 2021, and we expect topline results from that trial by year end 2021. If the Phase 1 trial is successful, we expect to initiate a Phase 2 trial for A3907 in adult liver disease in 2022. A US composition of matter and method of use patent for A3907 was issued with an expiration date between 2039 and 2040, not including patent term extension. We also have a preclinical program in adult liver and viral diseases. Our lead preclinical candidate for adult viral and liver diseases is A2342, a potent small molecule inhibitor of the sodium-taurocholate co-transporting peptide (NTCP). NTCP is a key transporter of bile acids into the liver cells but also the entry mechanism for the hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis D (HDV) viruses. A2342 protects primary human hepatocytes from HBV infection in vitro. In addition, A2342 reduces markers of infection in HBV-infected humanized mice. A2342 has demonstrated target engagement in non-human primates with biomarker increases comparable to increases achieved in humans by a now commercial subcutaneous peptide NTCP inhibitor. We plan to complete IND enabling studies with A2342 this year. Preclinical efforts with other bile acid modulator approaches continue.

Bylvay — Our Lead Product for PFIC. 

Bylvay (odevixibat) was approved by the FDA on July 20, 2021 for the treatment of pruritis in patients ages 3 months or older with PFIC, and authorized by the European Medicines Agency on July 16, 2021 for the treatment of

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patients 6 months or older with PFIC. We received a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher from the FDA in connection with the U.S. approval.

The precise prevalence of PFIC is unknown, and we are not aware of any patient registries or other method of establishing with precision the actual number of patients with PFIC in any geography. PFIC has been estimated to affect between one in every 75,000 children born worldwide. Based on the published incidence, published regional populations, and estimated median life expectancies, we estimate the prevalence of PFIC across the spectrum of the disease to be approximately 15,000 patients worldwide, not including China and India, but we are not able to estimate the prevalence of PFIC with precision. We hold global rights to Bylvay unencumbered. Our current plan is to commercialize Bylvay ourselves in the United States and Europe. We have entered into a Co-Promotion Agreement with Travere Therapeutics, Inc. for the co-promotion of Bylvay in the United States. The initial term of the arrangement is two years from launch of Bylvay, terminable at will by either party after one year following launch. We have also entered into license agreements with third parties to commercialize Bylvay in certain other jurisdictions, subject to regulatory approval in those jurisdictions including, Medison Pharma Ltd. in Israel, Gen İlaç ve Sağlık Ürünleri Sanayi ve Ticaret A.Ş. in Turkey and Genpharm Services for Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the UAE, and we are identifying potential partners for other regions. Bylvay is currently the only approved drug for the treatment of PFIC. Ursodeoxycholic acid, or UDCA, is approved in France only for PFIC type 3, and in the United States and elsewhere for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis, or PBC. However, many PFIC patients do not respond well to UDCA, undergo partial external bile diversion, or PEBD, surgery and often require liver transplantation. PEBD surgery is a life-altering and undesirable procedure in which bile is drained outside the body to a stoma bag that must be worn by the patient 24 hours a day.

Other Indications Under Development for Bylvay. 

We are also pursuing the development of Bylvay in patients with biliary atresia, another rare, life-threatening disease that affects the liver and for which there is no approved pharmacologic treatment option. In December 2018, the European Commission granted orphan designation to Bylvay for the treatment of biliary atresia, and in January 2019, the FDA granted orphan drug designation to Bylvay for the treatment of biliary atresia. We initiated the BOLD clinical trial, a global pivotal trial and the largest prospective intervention trial ever conducted in biliary atresia, in the first half of 2020. We continue to enroll patients in the trial and expect topline results in 2024. We believe biliary atresia is one of the most common rare pediatric liver diseases, and is the leading cause of liver transplants in children. Our double-blind, placebo controlled pivotal trial in biliary atresia is designed to enroll approximately 200 patients at 70 sites globally. Patients will receive either placebo or high-dose (120µg/kg) Bylvay once daily. The primary endpoint is survival with native liver after two years of treatment.

Biliary atresia is a partial or total blocking or absence of large bile ducts that causes cholestasis and resulting accumulation of bile that damages the liver. The estimated worldwide incidence of biliary atresia is between 6 and 10 for every 100,000 live births. We estimate the prevalence of biliary atresia to be approximately 18,100 patients across the U.S. and Europe, and approximately 27,000 combined in other jurisdictions worldwide, but we are not able to estimate the prevalence of biliary atresia with precision. There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of biliary atresia. The current standard of care is a surgery known as the Kasai procedure, or hepatoportoenterostomy, in which the obstructed bile ducts are removed and a section of the small intestine is connected to the liver directly. However, only an estimated 25% of those initially undergoing the Kasai procedure will survive to their twenties without need for liver transplantation.

In addition, we initiated a pivotal trial of Bylvay in ALGS, the ASSERT trial, in the fourth quarter of 2020. The trial is expected to enroll approximately 45 patients aged 0 to 17 years of age with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of ALGS across 35 sites in North America, Europe, Middle East and Asia Pacific. We expect topline data to be available in 2022, before the announcement of the topline results from the BOLD trial. ALGS is a genetic condition associated with liver, heart, eye, kidney and skeletal abnormalities. In particular, ALGS patients have fewer than normal bile ducts inside the liver, which leads to cholestasis and the accumulation of bile and causes scarring in the liver. ALGS is estimated to affect between one in every 50,000 children born worldwide. We estimate the prevalence of ALGS to be approximately 11,700 patients across the U.S. and Europe, and approximately 13,000 combined in other jurisdictions

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worldwide, but we are not able to estimate the prevalence of ALGS with precision. There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of ALGS. Current treatment for ALGS is generally in line with current treatments for PFIC as described above. In August 2012, the European Commission granted orphan designation to Bylvay for the treatment of ALGS. In October 2018, the FDA granted orphan drug designation to Bylvay for the treatment of ALGS.

We continue to evaluate potential clinical development in other indications, including primary sclerosing cholangitis, which refers to swelling (inflammation), scarring, and destruction of bile ducts inside and outside of the liver. The first symptoms are typically fatigue, itching and jaundice, and many patients with sclerosing cholangitis also suffer from inflammatory bowel disease. The estimated incidence of primary sclerosing cholangitis is 9 cases per 100,000 people. There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of sclerosing cholangitis. First-line treatment is typically off-label UDCA, although UDCA has not been established to be safe and effective in patients with sclerosing cholangitis in well controlled clinical trials.

Since inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. As of June 30, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of $346.9 million. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses as we continue our development of, and seek marketing approvals for, our product candidates, prepare for and begin the commercialization of any approved products, and add infrastructure and personnel to support our product development efforts and operations as a public company in the United States.

As a commercial-stage company, our revenues, expenses and results of operations are likely to fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year. We believe that period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations should not be relied upon as indicative of our future performance.

As of June 30, 2021, we had approximately $186.3 million in cash and cash equivalents.

Financial Operations Overview

The following discussion sets forth certain components of our consolidated statements of operations as well as factors that impact those items.

Revenue

We generate revenue primarily from the receipt of royalty revenue, upfront or license fees and milestone payments. License agreements with commercial partners generally include nonrefundable upfront fees and milestone payments, the receipt of which is dependent upon the achievement of specified development, regulatory or commercial milestone events, as well as royalties on product sales of licensed products, if and when such product sales occur, and payments for pharmaceutical ingredient or related procurement services. For these agreements, management applies judgment in the allocation of total agreement consideration to the performance obligations on a reliable basis that reasonably reflects the selling prices that might be expected to be achieved in stand-alone transactions. For additional information about our revenue recognition, refer to Note 1 to our condensed consolidated financial statements included in this quarterly report.

Operating Expenses

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel costs (including salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation) for employees in research and development functions, costs associated with nonclinical and clinical development services, including clinical trials and related manufacturing costs, third-party contract research organizations, or CROs, and related services and other outside costs, including fees for third-party professional services such as consultants. Our nonclinical studies and clinical studies are performed by CROs. We expect to continue to focus our research and development efforts on nonclinical studies and clinical trials of our product candidates. As a result, we expect our research and development expenses to continue to increase for the foreseeable future.

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Our direct research and development expenses are tracked on a program-by-program basis and consist primarily of external costs such as fees paid to CROs and others in connection with our nonclinical and clinical development activities and related manufacturing. We do not allocate employee costs or facility expenses, including depreciation or other indirect costs, to specific product development programs because these costs are deployed across multiple product development programs and, as such, are not separately classified.

Successful development of our current and potential future product candidates is highly uncertain. Completion dates and costs for our programs can vary significantly by product candidate and are difficult to predict. As a result, we cannot estimate with any degree of certainty the costs we will incur in connection with development of any of our product candidates. We anticipate we will make determinations as to which programs and product candidates to pursue and how much funding to direct to each program and product candidate on an ongoing basis in response to the results of ongoing and future clinical trials, our ability to enter into licensing, collaboration and similar arrangements with respect to current or potential future product candidates, the success of research and development programs and our assessments of commercial potential.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel costs (including salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation) for our executive, finance and other administrative employees. In addition, general and administrative expenses include fees for third-party professional services, including consulting, information technology, legal and accounting services and other corporate expenses and allocated overhead.

Other Operating (Income) Expense, net

Other operating (income) expense, net consists primarily of foreign currency exchange gains or losses associated with revaluation of intercompany loans.

Interest Expense, net

Interest expense, net consists primarily of non-cash interest expense recorded in connection with the sale of future royalties, related to sales of elobixibat in Japan in addition to both cash and non-cash interest expense associated with our note payable. In addition, interest expense, net includes interest income associated with our interest-bearing cash and cash equivalents.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations is based on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles for interim financial information. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. We base our estimates and assumptions on historical experience and on various assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, and we evaluate them on an ongoing basis. These estimates and assumptions form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the recording of revenues and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results and experiences may differ materially from these estimates and judgments. In addition, our reported financial condition and results of operations could vary if new accounting standards are enacted that are applicable to our business. Our critical accounting policies and the methodologies and assumptions we apply under them have not materially changed since February 25, 2021, the date we filed our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020. For more information on our critical accounting policies, refer to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020.

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Results of Operations

Three Months Ended June 30, 2021 and June 30, 2020

Result of Operations

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Change

2021

    

2020

    

$

(in thousands)

Revenue

$

2,428

$

1,912

$

516

Operating Expenses

Research and development

20,894

18,397

2,497

General and administrative

16,940

8,474

8,466

Other operating income, net

(2,374)

(6,744)

4,370

Total operating expenses

35,460

20,127

15,333

Operating loss

(33,032)

(18,215)

(14,817)

Interest expense, net

(3,389)

(2,388)

(1,001)

Net loss

$

(36,421)

$

(20,603)

$

(15,818)

Revenue

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2021

    

2020

    

$

    

(in thousands)

Revenue

$

2,428

$

1,912

$

516

There was $2.4 million in revenue for the three months ended June 30, 2021 compared with $1.9 million for the three months ended June 30, 2020, an increase of $0.5 million. The higher revenue is due to the estimated royalty revenue to be received from EA Pharma for elobixibat for the treatment of chronic constipation.

Research and development expenses

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2021

    

2020

    

$

(in thousands)

Research and development expenses

$

20,894

$

18,397

$

2,497

Research and development expenses were $20.9 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 compared with $18.4 million for the three months ended June 30, 2020, an increase of $2.5 million. The increased research and development expenses for the 2021 period were principally due to clinical and preclinical programs and personnel expenses as we continue to increase our headcount and program activities. The increase in program activities related to odevixibat consisting of biliary atresia and Alagille syndrome, and A3907 and were partially offset by Bylvay PFIC expenses, and elobixibat.

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The following table summarizes our principal product development programs and the out-of-pocket third-party expenses incurred with respect to each clinical-stage product candidate and our preclinical programs for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2021

    

2020

    

$

    

(in thousands)

Direct third-party project costs:

Bylvay

$

5,491

$

8,325

$

(2,834)

Odevixibat

5,010

2,679

2,331

Elobixibat

 

 

889

 

(889)

A3384

 

 

34

 

(34)

A3907

2,213

2,213

Preclinical

 

1,145

 

1,188

 

(43)

Total

$

13,859

$

13,115

$

744

Other project costs(1):

Personnel costs

$

6,267

$

4,632

$

1,635

Other costs(2)

 

768

 

650

 

118

Total

$

7,035

$

5,282

$

1,753

Total research and development costs

$

20,894

$

18,397

$

2,497

(1)Other project costs are leveraged across multiple programs.
(2)Other costs include facility, supply, consultant and overhead costs that support multiple programs.

General and administrative expenses

    

    

 

    

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2021

    

2020

    

$

    

(in thousands)

General and administrative expenses

$

16,940

$

8,474

$

8,466

General and administrative expenses were $16.9 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 compared with $8.5 million for the three months ended June 30, 2020, an increase of $8.5 million. The increase is attributable to personnel and related expenses as we continue to increase our headcount, and commercialization readiness activity related to Bylvay.

Other operating income, net

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2021

    

2020

    

$

(in thousands)

Other operating income, net

$

(2,374)

$

(6,744)

$

4,370

Other operating income, net totaled $2.4 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 compared with $6.7 million for the three months ended June 30, 2020. The difference primarily relates to changes in foreign currency exchange rates in the two periods.

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Interest expense, net

    

    

 

    

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2021

    

2020

    

$

    

(in thousands)

Interest expense, net

$

(3,389)

$

(2,388)

$

(1,001)

Interest expense, net totaled $3.4 million for the three months ended June 30, 2021 compared with $2.4 million for the three months ended June 30, 2020. The difference was principally attributable to higher non-cash interest expense recorded in connection with the sale of future royalties related to sales of elobixibat in Japan, in addition to interest expense associated with our note payable.

Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 and June 30, 2020

Result of Operations

Six Months Ended June 30, 

Change

2021

    

2020

    

$

(in thousands)

Revenue

$

4,394

$

3,461

$

933

Operating Expenses

Research and development

40,837

34,527

6,310

General and administrative

32,213

16,627

15,586

Other operating expense, net

4,154

72

4,082

Total operating expenses

77,204

51,226

25,978

Operating loss

(72,810)

(47,765)

(25,045)

Interest expense, net

(7,344)

(4,326)

(3,018)

Net loss

$

(80,154)

$

(52,091)

$

(28,063)

Revenue

Six Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2021