tm217904-1_s3asr - none - 5.1719167s
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 25, 2021
Registration No. 333-      
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
Albireo Pharma, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
Incorporation or organization)
90-0136863
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
10 Post Office Square, Suite 1000
Boston, Massachusetts 02109
(857) 254-5555
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Ronald H.W. Cooper
President and Chief Executive Officer
Albireo Pharma, Inc.
10 Post Office Square, Suite 1000
Boston, Massachusetts 02109
(857) 254-5555
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Megan N. Gates, Esq.
John P. Condon, Esq.
Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.
One Financial Center
Boston, Massachusetts 02111
(617) 542-6000
Jason G. Duncan, Esq.
Chief Legal Officer, General Counsel and Secretary
Albireo Pharma, Inc.
10 Post Office Square, Suite 1000
Boston, Massachusetts 02109
(857) 254-5555
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement as determined by the registrant.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box: ☐
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box: ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

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If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☐ Non-accelerated filer ☒ Smaller reporting company ☒
Emerging growth company ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act. ☐
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
Amount to be
Registered
Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering
Price
Amount of
Registration Fee
Primary Offering of Securities:
Common Stock, $0.01 par value
(1)
(1)
(2)
Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value
(1)
(1)
(2)
Debt Securities
(1)
(1)
(2)
Warrants
(1)
(1)
(2)
Rights
(1)
(1)
(2)
Units
(1)
(1)
(2)
Subtotal
(1)
(1)
(2)
Primary Offering of Securities:
Common Stock, $0.01 par value
$ 100,000,000 $ 100,000,000 $ 10,910.00
Total
(1)
(1)
(2)
(1)
Pursuant to Form S-3 General Instructions II.E, this information is not required to be included. An indeterminate amount of the securities of each identified class is being registered as may from time to time be offered hereunder at indeterminate prices, along with an indeterminate number of securities that may be issued upon exercise, settlement, exchange or conversion of securities offered or sold hereunder. Pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), this registration statement also covers any additional securities that may be offered or issued in connection with any stock split, stock dividend or pursuant to anti-dilution provisions of any of the securities. Separate consideration may or may not be received for securities that are issuable upon conversion, exercise or exchange of other securities.
(2)
In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r) under the Securities Act, the registrant is deferring payment of these registration fees and will pay these registration fees subsequently in advance or on a “pay-as-you-go” basis.

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EXPLANATORY NOTE
This registration statement contains:

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings; and

a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $100,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under a sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC.
The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The $100,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the offering of the securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus.
 

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PROSPECTUS
Albireo Pharma, Inc.
COMMON STOCK
PREFERRED STOCK
DEBT SECURITIES
WARRANTS
RIGHTS
UNITS
This prospectus will allow us to issue, from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined at or prior to the time of the offering of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in units. We may also offer: common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of or exchange for the debt securities; common stock upon conversion of or exchange for the preferred stock; or common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants or rights.
This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide you with the specific terms of any offering in one or more supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, as well as any documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, carefully before you invest.
Our securities may be sold directly by us to you, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any underwriters or agents are involved in the sale of our securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters or agents and any applicable fees, commissions or discounts and over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds that we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ALBO.” On February 24, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $36.68 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market or any securities market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. Prospective purchasers of our securities are urged to obtain current information as to the market prices of our securities, where applicable.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks that we have described on page 5 of this prospectus under the caption “Risk Factors.” We may also include specific risk factors in supplements to this prospectus under the caption “Risk Factors.” This prospectus may not be used to sell our securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is February 25, 2021.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of an automatic shelf registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer shares of our common stock or preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants or rights to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in units, in one or more offerings, at prices and on terms to be set forth in one or more supplements to this prospectus at the time of an offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings.
This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. However, no prospectus supplement will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, includes all material information relating to the offering of securities under this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement, the information and documents incorporated herein by reference and the additional information under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Documents by Reference” before making an investment decision.
You should rely only on the information we have provided or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information or representation. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information we have incorporated herein by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of a security.
We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of our securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement. To the extent there are inconsistencies between any prospectus supplement, this prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference, the document with the most recent date will control.
Unless the context otherwise requires, “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Albireo Pharma, Inc. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
The following is a summary of what we believe to be the most important aspects of our business and the offering of our securities under this prospectus. We urge you to read this entire prospectus, including the more detailed consolidated financial statements, notes to the consolidated financial statements and other information incorporated by reference from our other filings with the SEC or included in any applicable prospectus supplement. Investing in our securities involves risks. Please carefully consider the risk factors set forth in any prospectus supplements and in our most recent annual and quarterly filings with the SEC, as well as other information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, before purchasing our securities. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities.
About Albireo Pharma, Inc.
We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of novel bile acid modulators to treat orphan pediatric liver diseases and other liver or gastrointestinal diseases and disorders. We are pursuing the development of our lead product candidate, odevixibat (formerly known as A4250), for patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, or PFIC, a rare, life-threatening genetic disorder affecting young children for which there is currently no approved drug treatment. In September 2020, we announced topline results from our Phase 3 trial in PFIC, and in December 2020, we announced that we submitted a new drug application, or NDA, to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, and a marketing authorization application, or MAA, to the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, seeking approval of odevixibat for the treatment of patients with PFIC, in anticipation of potential regulatory approval, issuance of a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher and commercial launch in the second half of 2021. In January 2021 we announced the FDA accepted our NDA for odevixibat for the treatment of patients with PFIC, which was submitted in November 2020, with priority review and a user fee goal date under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) of July 20, 2021.
We are also pursuing the development of odevixibat in biliary atresia and in Alagille syndrome, or ALGS, each of which is a rare, life threatening disease that affects the liver and for which there is no approved pharmacologic treatment option. We initiated a pivotal clinical trial of odevixibat in biliary atresia, the BOLD trial, in the first half of 2020, and continue to enroll patients in the trial. We expect topline results from the BOLD trial in 2024. We also initiated a pivotal trial of odevixibat in ALGS, the ASSERT trial, in the fourth quarter of 2020. We expect topline results from the ASSERT trial in 2022. Our most advanced product candidate in addition to odevixibat is elobixibat, which is approved in Japan for the treatment of chronic constipation. In August 2020, we announced topline results from our Phase 2 clinical trial as a treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH, and based on the results of the trial, we decided not to pursue further development of elobixibat in NAFLD or NASH. We also have a preclinical program in adult liver and viral diseases. Our lead preclinical candidate for adult liver diseases, A3907, is a selective inhibitor of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) that has, based on animal studies, high predicted systemic bioavailability in man. As a result, A3907 has the potential to not only affect the bile acid pool by increased bile acid excretion in the stools but also through other pathways, including increased urinary bile acid excretion. This unique approach may yield greater dosing flexibility, greater efficacy and lower rates of adverse events associated with the category, such as diarrhea. We have completed IND enabling studies for A3907, plan to initiate a Phase 1 clinical trial in adult liver disease in the first half of 2021 and expect topline results in 2021. Our lead candidate for adult viral and liver diseases is A2342, an oral systemic sodium-taurocholate co-transporting peptide, or NTCP inhibitor, which is a potent small molecule that blocks entry of bile acids into the liver. We plan to complete IND enabling studies with A2342 this year. Preclinical efforts with other bile acid modulator approaches continue.
Additional Information
For additional information related to our business and operations, please refer to the reports incorporated herein by reference, including the Annual Report on Form 10-K of Albireo Pharma, Inc. for the year ended December 31, 2020, as described under the caption “Incorporation of Documents by Reference” on page 28 of this prospectus.
 
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Our Corporate Information
Prior to November 3, 2016, we were a specialty biopharmaceutical company known as Biodel Inc. that historically had been focused on the development and commercialization of innovative treatments for diabetes. Biodel was originally incorporated in the State of Delaware in December 2003 under the name “Global Positioning Group, Ltd.” and subsequently changed its name to “Biodel Inc.” Albireo Limited was formed in connection with a spinout transaction from AstraZeneca AB in 2008 in which AstraZeneca assigned to Albireo AB all of its rights in and to its portfolio of IBAT inhibitors, including elobixibat and A4250, as well as other preclinical assets.
On November 3, 2016, we completed a share exchange transaction, or the Transaction, pursuant to an Amended and Restated Share Exchange Agreement dated July 13, 2016 that we entered into with Albireo Limited and the shareholders and noteholders of Albireo Limited. In the Transaction, each holder of Albireo Limited shares or notes convertible into Albireo Limited shares sold their shares of Albireo Limited for newly issued shares of our common stock. As a result, Albireo Limited became a wholly owned subsidiary of Biodel, Biodel’s corporate name was changed to Albireo Pharma, Inc., the business of Albireo Limited became our business and we became a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of novel bile acid modulators to treat orphan pediatric liver diseases and other liver or gastrointestinal diseases and disorders.
Our corporate headquarters are located at 10 Post Office Square, Suite 1000, Boston, Massachusetts 02109 and our telephone number is (857) 254-5555. We also have an office in Gothenburg, Sweden. We maintain a website at www.albireopharma.com, to which we regularly post copies of our press releases as well as additional information about us. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.
Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, are available free of charge through the investor relations page of our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.
All brand names or trademarks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective holders. Use or display by us of other parties’ trademarks, trade dress, or products in this prospectus is not intended to, and does not, imply a relationship with, or endorsements or sponsorship of, us by the trademark or trade dress owners.
Offerings under this Prospectus
Under this prospectus, we may offer shares of our common stock or preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants or rights to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in units, from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

designation or classification;

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

maturity, if applicable;

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

redemption, conversion or sinking fund terms, if any;

voting or other rights, if any; and

conversion or exercise prices, if any.
 
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The prospectus supplement also may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.
We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We, and our agents or underwriters, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we offer securities through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

the names of those agents or underwriters;

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

the net proceeds to us.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
 
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves significant risk. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of our securities will contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in the Company. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” included in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or our subsequent current reports on Form 8-K that we have filed with the SEC, all of which are incorporated herein by reference, and which may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act that relate to future events or to our future operations or financial performance. Any forward-looking statement involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statement. Forward-looking statements include statements, other than statements of historical fact, about, among other things:

the progress, number, scope, cost, duration or results of our development activities, nonclinical studies and clinical trials of elobixibat, A3907, A2342, or any of our other product candidates or programs, such as the target indication(s) for development or approval, the size, design, population, conduct, cost, objective or endpoints of any clinical trial, or the timing for initiation or completion of or availability of results from any clinical trial (including BOLD, our pivotal clinical trial of odevixibat in patients with biliary atresia or ASSERT, our pivotal trial of odevixibat in Alagille syndrome, or ALGS), for submission, review or approval of any regulatory filing, access to the Expanded Access Program (EAP) for odevixibat, or for meeting with regulatory authorities;

the potential benefits that may be derived from any of our product candidates;

the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our existing product candidates, any product candidates that we may develop, and any related restrictions, limitations, or warnings in the label of any approved product candidates;

any payment that EA Pharma Co., Ltd., or EA Pharma, may make to us or any other action or decision that EA Pharma may make concerning elobixibat or our business relationship;

the potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business operations or financial condition;

our future operations, financial position, revenues, costs, expenses, uses of cash, capital requirements, our need for additional financing or the period for which our existing cash resources will be sufficient to meet our operating requirements; or

our strategies, prospects, plans, expectations, forecasts or objectives.
Words such as, but not limited to, “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “forecast,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “targets,” “likely,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” “scheduled” and similar expressions or phrases, or the negative of those expressions or phrases, are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, we caution you that these statements
 
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are based on our estimates and projections of the future that are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, level of activity, performance, experience or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement. Actual results, level of activity, performance, experience or achievements may differ materially from those expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement as a result of various important factors, including our critical accounting policies and risks and uncertainties relating, among other things, to:

the design, size, duration and endpoints for, and results from BOLD, our pivotal trial of odevixibat in biliary atresia, and ASSERT, our pivotal trial of odevixibat in ALGS, or any other trials that will be required to obtain marketing approval for odevixibat to treat patients with PFIC, biliary atresia, ALGS or any other pediatric cholestatic liver disease or for A3907 and A2342 as a potential treatments for adult liver and viral diseases;

whether favorable findings from clinical trials of odevixibat to date, including findings in our completed Phase 3 clinical trial in PFIC and findings in indications other than PFIC, will be predictive of results from future clinical trials, including our pivotal trial of odevixibat in biliary atresia and our pivotal trial of odevixibat in ALGS;

whether either or both of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, and European Medicines Agency, or EMA, will determine that the primary endpoint and treatment duration of our completed Phase 3 trial in patients with PFIC are sufficient, even if such primary endpoint is met with statistical significance, to support approval of odevixibat in the United States or the European Union, to treat PFIC, a symptom of PFIC, a specific PFIC subtype(s) or otherwise, and whether either agency will complete their respective reviews within the target timelines, including the FDA’s Prescription Drug User Fee Act goal date of July 20, 2021, as a potential result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or otherwise;

the outcome and interpretation by regulatory authorities of an ongoing third-party study pooling and analyzing long-term PFIC patient data;

the timing for initiation or completion of, or for availability of data from, our pivotal trial of odevixibat in biliary atresia and our pivotal trial of odevixibat in ALGS, and the outcomes of such trials;

delays or other challenges in the recruitment of patients for the pivotal trial of odevixibat in biliary atresia and the pivotal trial of odevixibat in ALGS;

whether odevixibat will meet the criteria to receive a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher from the FDA when applicable, whether a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher that we may receive in the future for odevixibat, if any, will be valuable to us, and, if necessary, whether the rare pediatric disease priority review voucher program will be renewed beyond 2026;

the COVID-19 pandemic, which may negatively impact the conduct of, and the timing of initiation, enrollment, completion and reporting with respect to, our clinical trials; negatively impact the supply of drug product for our clinical and preclinical programs; and/or result in other adverse impacts on our business;

the competitive environment and commercial opportunity for a potential treatment for PFIC and other orphan pediatric cholestatic liver diseases;

the conduct and results of clinical trials and nonclinical studies and assessments of odevixibat, A3907, A2342 or any of our other product candidates and programs, including the performance of third parties engaged to execute them and difficulties or delays in patient enrollment and data analysis;

the medical benefit that may be derived from odevixibat, A3907, A2342 or any of our other product candidates;

the extent to which our agreement with EA Pharma for elobixibat generates nondilutive income for us;

the timing and success of submission, acceptance and approval of regulatory filings and any related restrictions, limitations or warnings in the label of any approved product candidates;
 
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the significant control or influence that EA Pharma has over the commercialization of elobixibat in Japan and the development and commercialization of elobixibat in EA Pharma’s other licensed territories;

whether we elect to seek and, if so, our ability to establish a license or other partnering transaction with a third party for elobixibat in the United States or Europe;

the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, costs, future revenues, uses of cash and capital requirements;

our ability to obtain additional financing on reasonable terms, or at all;

our ability to establish additional licensing, collaboration or similar arrangements on favorable terms and our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

the success of competing third-party products or product candidates;

our ability to successfully commercialize any approved product candidates, including their rate and degree of market acceptance;

whether we are able to maintain compliance with the terms and conditions of our loan and security agreement with Hercules Capital, Inc.;

our ability to expand and protect our intellectual property estate;

regulatory developments in the United States and other countries;

the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting;

the performance of our third-party suppliers, manufacturers and contract research organizations and our ability to obtain alternative sources of raw materials;

our ability to attract and retain key personnel; and

our ability to comply with regulatory requirements relating to our business, and the costs of compliance with those requirements, including those on data privacy and security.
These and other risks and uncertainties are described in greater detail under the caption “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, as updated and supplemented by the discussion of risks and uncertainties under “Risk Factors” contained in any supplements to this prospectus, or in the sections entitled “Business,” “Risk Factors,” “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” or “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or our subsequent current reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments thereto, as filed with the SEC and which are incorporated herein by reference. As a result of the risks and uncertainties, the results or events indicated by the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus or in any document incorporated herein by reference may not occur.
Investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement. Each forward-looking statement represents our views only as of the date of this prospectus or the date of the document incorporated by reference in this prospectus and should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments may cause our views to change. We expressly disclaim any obligation to update or alter any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make. All subsequent forward-looking statements attributable to us or to any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use any net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for our operations and our further development and potential commercialization of any or all of our product candidates odevixibat, A3907 and A2342, as well as the development of other product candidates, and other general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, working capital, intellectual property protection and enforcement, capital expenditures, repayment of any existing indebtedness, investments, acquisitions and collaborations. We have not determined the amounts we plan to spend on any of the areas listed above or the timing of these expenditures. As a result, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds, if any, we receive in connection with securities offered pursuant to this prospectus for any purpose. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we may initially invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities or apply them to the reduction of short-term indebtedness.
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may offer securities under this prospectus from time to time pursuant to public offerings through one or more placement agents or underwriters, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities (1) through underwriters or dealers, (2) through agents or (3) directly to one or more purchasers, or through a combination of such methods. We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at:

a fixed price or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

prices related to the prevailing market prices; or

negotiated prices.
We may directly solicit offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus. We may also designate agents to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time, and may enter into arrangements for “at the market,” equity line or similar transactions. We will name in a prospectus supplement any underwriter or agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities.
If we utilize a dealer in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.
If we utilize an underwriter in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will execute an underwriting agreement with the underwriter at the time of sale, and we will provide the name of any underwriter in the prospectus supplement which the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we, or the purchasers of the securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and the underwriter may compensate those dealers in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions.
With respect to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions and block trades, we will provide in the applicable prospectus supplement information regarding any compensation we pay to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof.
If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters, dealers or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in each applicable prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in each applicable prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.
 
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One or more firms, referred to as “remarketing firms,” may also offer or sell the securities, if a prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with a remarketing arrangement upon their purchase. Remarketing firms will act as principals for their own accounts or as our agents. These remarketing firms will offer or sell the securities in accordance with the terms of the securities. Each prospectus supplement will identify and describe any remarketing firm and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and will describe the remarketing firm’s compensation. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with the securities they remarket. Remarketing firms may be entitled under agreements that may be entered into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.
Certain underwriters may use this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement for offers and sales related to market-making transactions in the securities. These underwriters may act as principal or agent in these transactions, and the sales will be made at prices related to prevailing market prices at the time of sale. Any underwriters involved in the sale of the securities may qualify as “underwriters” within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act. In addition, the underwriters’ commissions, discounts or concessions may qualify as underwriters’ compensation under the Securities Act and the rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA.
Shares of our common stock sold pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part will be authorized for listing and trading on The Nasdaq Capital Market. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on The Nasdaq Capital Market or any securities market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. Underwriters may make a market in our common stock, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence, development or maintenance of trading markets for any of the securities.
In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing the applicable security in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if the securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.
The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in other transactions with us, or perform other services for us, in the ordinary course of their business.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK
We are authorized to issue 30,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share. On January 31, 2021, we had approximately 19,113,291 shares of common stock outstanding and approximately 24 stockholders of record.
The following summary of certain provisions of our common stock does not purport to be complete. You should refer to the section of this prospectus entitled “Certain Provisions of Delaware Law and of the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws” and our restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, which we refer to as our restated certificate of incorporation, and our amended and restated bylaws, which we refer to as our restated bylaws, both of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law.
General
Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future. All shares of common stock outstanding as of the date of this prospectus and, upon issuance and sale, all shares of common stock that we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, will be fully paid and nonassessable.
In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately our net assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. Our outstanding shares of common stock are validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, with offices at 1 State Street, 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004.
Stock Exchange Listing
Our common stock is listed for quotation on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ALBO.”
 
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DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK
We are authorized to issue 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. As of the date of this prospectus, no shares of our preferred stock were outstanding. The following summary of certain provisions of our preferred stock does not purport to be complete. You should refer to our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, both of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law.
General
Our board of directors may, without further action by our stockholders, from time to time, direct the issuance of shares of preferred stock in series and may, at the time of issuance, determine the rights, preferences and limitations of each series, including voting rights, dividend rights and redemption and liquidation preferences. Satisfaction of any dividend preferences of outstanding shares of preferred stock would reduce the amount of funds available for the payment of dividends on shares of our common stock. Holders of shares of preferred stock may be entitled to receive a preference payment in the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our company before any payment is made to the holders of shares of our common stock. In some circumstances, the issuance of shares of preferred stock may render more difficult or tend to discourage a merger, tender offer or proxy contest, the assumption of control by a holder of a large block of our securities or the removal of incumbent management. Upon the affirmative vote of our board of directors, without stockholder approval, we may issue shares of preferred stock with voting and conversion rights which could adversely affect the holders of shares of our common stock.
If we offer a specific series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will describe the terms of the preferred stock in the prospectus supplement for such offering and will file a copy of the certificate establishing the terms of the preferred stock with the SEC. To the extent required, this description will include:

the title and stated value;

the number of shares offered, the liquidation preference, if any, per share and the purchase price;

the dividend rate(s), period(s) or payment date(s), or method(s) of calculation for such dividends;

whether dividends will be cumulative or non cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;

the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

the provisions for redemption, if applicable;

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock, and, if applicable, the conversion price (or how it will be calculated) and conversion period;

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange price (or how it will be calculated) and exchange period;

voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock;

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of the affairs of the Company; and

any material limitations on issuance of any class or series of preferred stock ranking pari passu with or senior to the series of preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of the Company.
 
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Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we so indicate in a prospectus supplement, the terms of any debt securities offered under such prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below, and to the extent the terms set forth in a prospectus supplement differ from the terms described below, the terms set forth in the prospectus supplement shall control.
We may sell from time to time, in one or more offerings under this prospectus, debt securities, which may be senior or subordinated. We will issue any such senior debt securities under a senior indenture that we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the senior indenture. We will issue any such subordinated debt securities under a subordinated indenture, which we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part. We use the term “indentures” to refer to either the senior indenture or the subordinated indenture, as applicable. The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or the Trust Indenture Act, as in effect on the date of the indenture. We use the term “debenture trustee” to refer to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.
The following summaries of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities.
General
Each indenture provides that debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series and may be denominated and payable in foreign currencies or units based on or relating to foreign currencies. Neither the senior indenture nor any subordinated indenture limits the amount of debt securities that may be issued thereunder, and each indenture provides that the specific terms of any series of debt securities shall be set forth in, or determined pursuant to, an authorizing resolution or a supplemental indenture, if any, relating to such series.
We will describe in each prospectus supplement the following terms relating to a series of debt securities:

the title or designation;

the aggregate principal amount and any limit on the amount that may be issued;

the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;

whether we will issue the series of debt securities in global form, the terms of any global securities and who the depositary will be;

the maturity date and the date or dates on which principal will be payable;

the interest rate, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the date or dates interest will be payable and the record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

the terms of the subordination of any series of subordinated debt;

the place or places where payments will be payable;

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;
 
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the date, if any, after which, and the price at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional redemption provisions;

the date, if any, on which, and the price at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities;

whether the indenture will restrict our ability to pay dividends, or will require us to maintain any asset ratios or reserves;

whether we will be restricted from incurring any additional indebtedness;

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to a series of debt securities;

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities.
We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Conversion or Exchange Rights
We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms, if any, on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.
Consolidation, Merger or Sale; No Protection in Event of a Change of Control or Highly Leveraged Transaction
The indentures do not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate.
Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change of control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change of control), which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.
Events of Default Under the Indenture
The following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

if we fail to pay interest when due and our failure continues for 90 days and the time for payment has not been extended or deferred;

if we fail to pay the principal, or premium, if any, when due and the time for payment has not been extended or delayed;

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant set forth in the debt securities of such series or the applicable indentures, other than a covenant specifically relating to and for the benefit of holders of another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice from the debenture trustee or holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur as to us.
 
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No event of default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an event of default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of an event of default may constitute an event of default under any bank credit agreements we may have in existence from time to time. In addition, the occurrence of certain events of default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our other indebtedness outstanding from time to time.
If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the debenture trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) of and premium and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. Before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained with respect to debt securities of any series, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may rescind and annul the acceleration if all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the applicable indenture (including payments or deposits in respect of principal, premium or interest that had become due other than as a result of such acceleration). We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an event of default.
Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the debenture trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the debenture trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the debenture trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the debenture trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the debenture trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.
A holder of the debt securities of any series will only have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:

the holder previously has given written notice to the debenture trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and such holders have offered reasonable indemnity to the debenture trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee; and

the debenture trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) other conflicting directions within 60 days after the notice, request and offer.
These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.
We will periodically file statements with the applicable debenture trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the applicable indenture.
 
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Modification of Indenture; Waiver
The debenture trustee and we may change the applicable indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including:

to fix any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture; and

to change anything that does not materially adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series issued pursuant to such indenture.
In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the debenture trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) that is affected. However, the debenture trustee and we may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

extending the fixed maturity of the series of debt securities;

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or any premium payable upon the redemption of any debt securities;

reducing the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

making the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security; or

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment or waiver.
Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series or in respect of a covenant or provision, which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security of the series affected; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.
Discharge
Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for obligations to:

transfer or exchange debt securities of the series;

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

maintain paying agencies;

hold monies for payment in trust;

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

appoint any successor trustee.
In order to exercise our rights to be discharged with respect to a series, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, the premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.
 
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Form, Exchange, and Transfer
We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series.
At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.
Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange or in the applicable indenture, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.
We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.
If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.
Information Concerning the Debenture Trustee
The debenture trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under the applicable indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the debenture trustee under such indenture must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the debenture trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.
Payment and Paying Agents
Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.
We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that, unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check which we will mail to the holder. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the debenture trustee in the City of New York as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each
 
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series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.
All money we pay to a paying agent or the debenture trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.
Governing Law
The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.
Subordination of Subordinated Debt Securities
Our obligations pursuant to any subordinated debt securities will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of senior indebtedness we may incur. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
General
We may issue warrants to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities in one or more series together with other securities or separately, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Below is a description of certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer. Particular terms of the warrants will be described in the warrant agreements and the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants.
The applicable prospectus supplement will contain, where applicable, the following terms of and other information relating to the warrants:

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the price at which we will issue, the warrants;

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

the designation, amount and terms of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

if applicable, the exercise price for shares of our common stock and the number of shares of common stock to be received upon exercise of the warrants;

if applicable, the exercise price for shares of our preferred stock, the number of shares of preferred stock to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of our preferred stock;

if applicable, the exercise price for our debt securities, the amount of debt securities to be received upon exercise, and a description of that series of debt securities;

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

whether the warrants will be issued in fully registered form or bearer form, in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and the common stock, preferred stock or debt securities will be separately transferable;

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

the anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

any redemption or call provisions;

whether the warrants may be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units; and

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange and exercise of the warrants.
Outstanding Warrants
As of January 31, 2021, we had no warrants outstanding.
 
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Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for any warrants will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS
General
We may issue rights to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock or the other securities described in this prospectus. We may offer rights separately or together with one or more additional rights, debt securities, preferred stock, common stock or warrants, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of the series of certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions may apply to the rights so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. To the extent that any particular terms of the rights, rights agreement or rights certificates described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described below, then the terms described below will be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement. We encourage you to read the applicable rights agreement and rights certificate for additional information before you decide whether to purchase any of our rights.
We will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the rights being issued:

the date of determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution;

the aggregate number of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities purchasable upon exercise of the rights;

the exercise price;

the aggregate number of rights issued;

whether the rights are transferrable and the date, if any, on and after which the rights may be separately transferred;

the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence, and the date on which the right to exercise the rights will expire;

the method by which holders of rights will be entitled to exercise;

the conditions to the completion of the offering, if any;

the withdrawal, termination and cancellation rights, if any;

whether there are any backstop or standby purchaser or purchasers and the terms of their commitment, if any;

whether stockholders are entitled to oversubscription rights, if any;

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax considerations; and

any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of the rights, as applicable.
Each right will entitle the holder of rights to purchase for cash the principal amount of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities at the exercise price provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Holders may exercise rights as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of payment and the rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the rights agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon as practicable, forward the shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities, as applicable, purchasable upon exercise of the rights. If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any
 
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unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than stockholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Rights Agent
The rights agent for any rights we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
The following description, together with the additional information that we include in any applicable prospectus supplements summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any units that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any units offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.
We will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of unit agreement that describes the terms of the series of units we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of the related series of units. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the units are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the unit agreement and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of units. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of units that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses and the complete unit agreement and any supplemental agreements that contain the terms of the units.
General
We may issue units consisting of common stock, preferred stock, one or more debt securities, warrants or rights for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock or debt securities in one or more series, in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each security included in the unit. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of units being offered, including:

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below; and

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units.
The provisions described in this section, as well as those set forth in any prospectus supplement or as described under “Description of Common Stock,” “Description of Preferred Stock,” “Description of Debt Securities,” “Description of Warrants,” and “Description of Rights” will apply to each unit, as applicable, and to any common stock, preferred stock, debt security, warrant or right included in each unit, as applicable.
Unit Agent
The name and address of the unit agent for any units we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Issuance in Series
We may issue units in such amounts and in such numerous distinct series as we determine.
Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units
Each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit may, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.
 
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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF DELAWARE LAW AND OF THE COMPANY’S CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS
Anti-Takeover Provisions
The provisions of Delaware law and our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws could discourage or make it more difficult to accomplish a proxy contest or other change in our management or the acquisition of control by a holder of a substantial amount of our voting stock. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish, or could deter, transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interests or in our best interests. These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continuity and stability in the composition of our board of directors and in the policies formulated by the board of directors and to discourage certain types of transactions that may involve an actual or threatened change of our control. These provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. Such provisions also may have the effect of preventing changes in our management.
Delaware Statutory Business Combinations Provision
We are subject to the anti-takeover provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Section 203 prohibits a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is, or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder was, approved in a prescribed manner or another prescribed exception applies. For purposes of Section 203, a “business combination” is defined broadly to include a merger, asset sale or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder, and, subject to certain exceptions, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with his or her affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years prior, did own, 15% or more of the corporation’s voting stock.
Classified Board of Directors; Removal of Directors for Cause
Pursuant to our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws, our board of directors is divided into three classes, with the term of office of each class to expire at the third annual meeting of stockholders following election. At each annual meeting of stockholders, directors elected to succeed those directors whose terms expire, other than directors elected by the holders of any series of preferred stock under specified circumstances, will be elected for a three-year term of office. All directors elected to our classified board of directors will serve until the election and qualification of their respective successors or their earlier death, resignation or removal. Members of the board of directors may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of our then outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class. These provisions are likely to increase the time required for stockholders to change the composition of the board of directors. For example, at least two annual meetings will be necessary for stockholders to effect a change in a majority of the members of the board of directors.
Advance Notice Provisions for Stockholder Proposals and Stockholder Nominations of Directors
Our restated bylaws provide that, for nominations to the board of directors or for other business to be properly brought by a stockholder before a meeting of stockholders, the stockholder must first have given timely notice of the proposal in writing to our Secretary. For an annual meeting, a stockholder’s notice generally must be delivered not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary of the previous year’s annual meeting date. For a special meeting, the notice must generally be delivered not earlier than the 120th day prior to the meeting and not later than the later of (1) the 90th day prior to the meeting or (2) the 10th day following the day on which public announcement of the meeting is first made. Detailed requirements as to the form of the notice and information required in the notice are specified in the restated bylaws. If it is determined that business was not properly brought before a meeting in accordance with our bylaw provisions, such business will not be conducted at the meeting.
 
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Special Meetings of Stockholders
Special meetings of the stockholders may be called only by the chairman of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer, our President or our board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors.
No Stockholder Action by Written Consent
Any action to be effected by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of the stockholders.
Super Majority Stockholder Vote Required for Certain Actions
The Delaware General Corporation Law provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless the corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, require a greater percentage. Our restated certificate of incorporation requires the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the voting power of all of our outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, to amend or repeal any of the provisions discussed in this section of this prospectus. This 75% stockholder vote would be in addition to any separate class vote that might in the future be required pursuant to the terms of any preferred stock that might then be outstanding. A 75% vote is also required for any amendment to, or repeal of, our restated bylaws by the stockholders. Our restated bylaws may be amended or repealed by vote of a majority of the authorized number of directors.
Limitation of Liability and Indemnification
Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws provide that we shall indemnify our directors and executive officers to the fullest extent not prohibited by the Delaware General Corporation Law or any other applicable law, except that we are not required to indemnify any director or executive officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized by our board of directors, (iii) we provide such indemnification, in our sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in us under the Delaware General Corporation Law or any other applicable law, or (iv) such indemnification is required to be made under the enforcement provisions of our restated bylaws.
Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law permits a corporation to indemnify any director or officer of the corporation against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with any action, suit or proceeding brought by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the corporation, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner that he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, if he or she had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. In a derivative action (i.e., one brought by or on behalf of the corporation), indemnification may be provided only for expenses actually and reasonably incurred by any director or officer in connection with the defense or settlement of such an action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner that he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, except that no indemnification shall be provided if such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation, unless and only to the extent that the Delaware Chancery Court or the court in which the action or suit was brought shall determine that such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses despite such adjudication of liability.
Pursuant to Section 102(b)(7) of the Delaware General Corporation Law, Article Sixth of our restated certificate of incorporation eliminates the liability of a director to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for such a breach of fiduciary duty as a director to the fullest extent under applicable law, which does not include liabilities arising:

from any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;
 
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from acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

under Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law; and

from any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers, in addition to the indemnification provided in our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, and intend to enter into indemnification agreements with any new directors and executive officers in the future. We have purchased and intend to maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer against any loss arising from any claim asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, subject to certain exclusions.
The foregoing discussion of our restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements and Delaware law is not intended to be exhaustive and is qualified in its entirety by such restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements or law.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., Boston, Massachusetts, will pass upon the validity of the issuance of the securities to be offered by this prospectus.
EXPERTS
Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. SEC filings are available at the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov.
This prospectus is only part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act, and therefore omits certain information contained in the registration statement. We have also filed exhibits and schedules with the registration statement that are excluded from this prospectus, and you should refer to the applicable exhibit or schedule for a complete description of any statement referring to any contract or other document. We also maintain a website at www.albireopharma.com, through which you can access our SEC filings. The information set forth on our website is not part of this prospectus.
INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with them. Incorporation by reference allows us to disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We filed a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with the SEC with respect to the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. This prospectus omits certain information contained in the registration statement, as permitted by the SEC. You should refer to the registration statement, including the exhibits, for further information about us and the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. Statements in this prospectus regarding the provisions of certain documents filed with, or incorporated by reference in, the registration statement are not necessarily complete and each statement is qualified in all respects by that reference. Copies of all or any part of the registration statement, including the documents incorporated by reference or the exhibits, are available at the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov. The documents we are incorporating by reference are:

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 that we filed with the SEC on February 25, 2021;

our Current Reports on Form 8-K that we filed with the SEC on January 25, 2021 (except for the information furnished under Items 2.02 or 7.01 and the exhibits furnished thereto);

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on May 8, 2007, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

all reports and other documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination or completion of the offering of securities under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be a part hereof from the date of filing such reports and other documents.
The SEC file number for each of the documents listed above is 001-33451.
In addition, all reports and other documents filed by us pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
 
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Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.
You may request, orally or in writing, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated herein by reference. These documents will be provided to you at no cost, by contacting:
Albireo Pharma, Inc.
10 Post Office Square, Suite 1000
Boston, Massachusetts 02109
(857) 254-5555
You may also access these documents on our website, http://www.albireopharma.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.
You should rely only on information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We are not making offers to sell the securities in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.
 
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Albireo Pharma, Inc.
COMMON STOCK
PREFERRED STOCK
DEBT SECURITIES
WARRANTS
RIGHTS
UNITS
PROSPECTUS
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PROSPECTUS
Albireo Pharma, Inc.
$100,000,000
Common Stock
We have entered into a Sales Agreement, or sales agreement, with Cowen and Company, LLC, or Cowen, dated February 25, 2021, relating to the sale of shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, under this prospectus we may offer and sell shares of our common stock, $0.01 par value per share, having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000 from time to time through Cowen, acting as our agent.
Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made by any method permitted that is deemed an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through The Nasdaq Capital Market or any other existing trading market for our common stock. Cowen is not required to sell any specific amount, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
Cowen will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold under the sales agreement. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page SA-17 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to Cowen. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ALBO.” On February 24, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $36.68 per share.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks that we have described on page SA-5 of this prospectus under the caption “Risk Factors” and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Cowen
The date of this prospectus is February 25, 2021.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of an automatic registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the SEC, as a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000 under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering.
This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits. This prospectus, together with the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, includes all material information relating to the offering of securities under this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the information and documents incorporated herein by reference and the additional information under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Documents by Reference” before making an investment decision.
You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have not, and Cowen has not, authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information or representation. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares of our common stock offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information we have incorporated herein by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of a security.
We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.
To the extent there are inconsistencies between this prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference, the document with the most recent date will control.
Unless the context otherwise requires, “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms refer to Albireo Pharma, Inc. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries.
 
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
The following is a summary of what we believe to be the most important aspects of our business and the offering of our securities under this prospectus. We urge you to read this entire prospectus, including the more detailed consolidated financial statements, notes to the consolidated financial statements and other information incorporated by reference from our other filings with the SEC. Investing in our securities involves risks. Please carefully consider the risk factors set forth in our most recent annual and quarterly filings with the SEC, as well as other information in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, before purchasing our securities. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities.
About Albireo Pharma, Inc.
We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of novel bile acid modulators to treat orphan pediatric liver diseases and other liver or gastrointestinal diseases and disorders. We are pursuing the development of our lead product candidate, odevixibat (formerly known as A4250), for patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, or PFIC, a rare, life-threatening genetic disorder affecting young children for which there is currently no approved drug treatment. In September 2020, we announced topline results from our Phase 3 trial in PFIC, and in December 2020, we announced that we submitted a new drug application, or NDA, to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, and a marketing authorization application, or MAA, to the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, seeking approval of odevixibat for the treatment of patients with PFIC, in anticipation of potential regulatory approval, issuance of a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher and commercial launch in the second half of 2021. In January 2021 we announced the FDA accepted our NDA for odevixibat for the treatment of patients with PFIC, which was submitted in November 2020, with priority review and a user fee goal date under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) of July 20, 2021.
We are also pursuing the development of odevixibat in biliary atresia and in Alagille syndrome, or ALGS, each of which is a rare, life threatening disease that affects the liver and for which there is no approved pharmacologic treatment option. We initiated a pivotal clinical trial of odevixibat in biliary atresia, the BOLD trial, in the first half of 2020, and continue to enroll patients in the trial. We expect topline results from the BOLD trial in 2024. We also initiated a pivotal trial of odevixibat in ALGS, the ASSERT trial, in the fourth quarter of 2020. We expect topline results from the ASSERT trial in 2022. Our most advanced product candidate in addition to odevixibat is elobixibat, which is approved in Japan for the treatment of chronic constipation. In August 2020, we announced topline results from our Phase 2 clinical trial as a treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH, and based on the results of the trial, we decided not to pursue further development of elobixibat in NAFLD or NASH. We also have a preclinical program in adult liver and viral diseases. Our lead preclinical candidate for adult liver diseases, A3907, is a selective inhibitor of the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) that has, based on animal studies, high predicted systemic bioavailability in man. As a result, A3907 has the potential to not only affect the bile acid pool by increased bile acid excretion in the stools but also through other pathways, including increased urinary bile acid excretion. This unique approach may yield greater dosing flexibility, greater efficacy and lower rates of adverse events associated with the category, such as diarrhea. We have completed IND enabling studies for A3907, plan to initiate a Phase 1 clinical trial in adult liver disease in the first half of 2021 and expect topline results in 2021. Our lead candidate for adult viral and liver diseases is A2342, an oral systemic sodium-taurocholate co-transporting peptide, or NTCP inhibitor, which is a potent small molecule that blocks entry of bile acids into the liver. We plan to complete IND enabling studies with A2342 this year. Preclinical efforts with other bile acid modulator approaches continue.
Additional Information
For additional information related to our business and operations, please refer to the reports incorporated herein by reference, including the Annual Report on Form 10-K of Albireo Pharma, Inc. for the year ended December 31, 2020, as described under the caption “Incorporation of Documents by Reference” on page SA-19 of this prospectus.
 
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Our Corporate Information
Prior to November 3, 2016, we were a specialty biopharmaceutical company known as Biodel Inc. that historically had been focused on the development and commercialization of innovative treatments for diabetes. Biodel was originally incorporated in the State of Delaware in December 2003 under the name “Global Positioning Group, Ltd.” and subsequently changed its name to “Biodel Inc.” Albireo Limited was formed in connection with a spinout transaction from AstraZeneca AB in 2008 in which AstraZeneca assigned to Albireo AB all of its rights in and to its portfolio of IBAT inhibitors, including elobixibat and A4250, as well as other preclinical assets.
On November 3, 2016, we completed a share exchange transaction, or the Transaction, pursuant to an Amended and Restated Share Exchange Agreement dated July 13, 2016 that we entered into with Albireo Limited and the shareholders and noteholders of Albireo Limited. In the Transaction, each holder of Albireo Limited shares or notes convertible into Albireo Limited shares sold their shares of Albireo Limited for newly issued shares of our common stock. As a result, Albireo Limited became a wholly owned subsidiary of Biodel, Biodel’s corporate name was changed to Albireo Pharma, Inc., the business of Albireo Limited became our business and we became a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of novel bile acid modulators to treat orphan pediatric liver diseases and other liver or gastrointestinal diseases and disorders.
Our corporate headquarters are located at 10 Post Office Square, Suite 1000, Boston, Massachusetts 02109 and our telephone number is (857) 254-5555. We also have an office in Gothenburg, Sweden. We maintain a website at www.albireopharma.com, to which we regularly post copies of our press releases as well as additional information about us. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.
Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available free of charge through the investor relations page of our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.
All brand names or trademarks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective holders. Use or display by us of other parties’ trademarks, trade dress, or products in this prospectus is not intended to, and does not, imply a relationship with, or endorsements or sponsorship of, us by the trademark or trade dress owners.
 
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THE OFFERING
Common stock offered by us
Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000.
Manner of offering
“At the market” offering that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Cowen and Company, LLC. See “Plan of Distribution” on page SA — 17 of this prospectus.
Use of proceeds
We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for our operations and our further development and potential commercialization of any or all of our product candidates odevixibat, A3907 and A2342, as well as the development of other product candidates, and other general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, working capital, intellectual property protection and enforcement, capital expenditures, repayment of any existing indebtedness, investments, acquisitions and collaborations. See the section entitled “Use of Proceeds” on page SA — 10 of this prospectus.
Risk factors
See “Risk Factors” beginning on page SA — 5 of this prospectus and the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus for a discussion of certain factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.
Nasdaq Capital Market symbol
“ALBO”
 
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our common stock, you should consider carefully the risks described below and discussed under the sections captioned “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as in any of our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the information and documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment.
Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose part or all of your investment. This prospectus and the incorporated documents also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks mentioned below. Forward-looking statements included in this prospectus are based on information available to us on the date hereof, and all forward-looking statements in documents incorporated by reference are based on information available to us as of the date of such documents. We disclaim any intent to update any forward-looking statements.
Risks Related to this Offering
Our management will have broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from this offering, and you may not agree with how we use the proceeds and the proceeds may not be invested successfully.
Our management will have broad discretion as to the use of the net proceeds from this offering and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of this offering. Accordingly, you are relying on the judgment of our management with regard to the use of these net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds will be used appropriately. It is possible that the proceeds will be invested in a way that does not yield a favorable, or any, return for the Company.
Purchasers will experience immediate dilution in the book value per share of the common stock purchased in the offering.
The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. However, we expect that the offering price of our common stock will be substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock. After giving effect to the sale of shares of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100.0 million at an assumed offering price of $36.68 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on February 24, 2021 on The Nasdaq Capital Market, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of December 31, 2020 would have been approximately $260.8 million or approximately $11.95 per share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of approximately $3.37 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in as adjusted net tangible book value of approximately $24.73 per share to purchasers of our common stock in this offering. Because the sales of the shares offered under this prospectus will be made directly into the market, the prices at which we sell these shares will vary and these variations may be significant. Any purchaser of the shares we sell, as well as any existing stockholder, will experience significant dilution if we sell shares at prices significantly below the price at which the purchaser or existing stockholder invested.
Further, the exercise of outstanding options or the vesting of restricted stock units could result in further dilution to investors and any additional shares issued in connection with acquisitions will result in dilution to investors. In addition, the market price of our common stock could fall as a result of resales of any of these shares of common stock due to an increased number of shares available for sale in the market. As of December 31, 2020, we had 2,371,823 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding, of which 1,466,405 shares were vested as of such date, 33,065 shares issuable upon
 
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the vesting of restricted stock units outstanding, 258,500 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Inducement Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2020 Inducement Plan, 1,688,204 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2018 Plan, plus up to an additional 574,979 shares subject to outstanding stock options granted under our 2016 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2016 Plan, the Biodel Inc. 2010 Stock Incentive Plan, as amended, or the 2010 Plan, or our 2017 Inducement Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2017 Plan, which may be issued under the 2018 Plan solely after the forfeiture, expiration or cancellation of such stock options, and 277,376 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or the 2018 ESPP.
You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.
In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock. We cannot assure you that we will be able to sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is equal to or greater than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share in this offering.
 
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, that relate to future events or to our future operations or financial performance. Any forward-looking statement involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statement. Forward-looking statements include statements, other than statements of historical fact, about, among other things:

the progress, number, scope, cost, duration or results of our development activities, nonclinical studies and clinical trials of elobixibat, A3907, A2342, or any of our other product candidates or programs, such as the target indication(s) for development or approval, the size, design, population, conduct, cost, objective or endpoints of any clinical trial, or the timing for initiation or completion of or availability of results from any clinical trial (including BOLD, our pivotal clinical trial of odevixibat in patients with biliary atresia or ASSERT, our pivotal trial of odevixibat in Alagille syndrome, or ALGS), for submission, review or approval of any regulatory filing, access to the Expanded Access Program (EAP) for odevixibat, or for meeting with regulatory authorities;

the potential benefits that may be derived from any of our product candidates;

the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our existing product candidates, any product candidates that we may develop, and any related restrictions, limitations, or warnings in the label of any approved product candidates;

any payment that EA Pharma Co., Ltd., or EA Pharma, may make to us or any other action or decision that EA Pharma may make concerning elobixibat or our business relationship;

the potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business operations or financial condition;

our future operations, financial position, revenues, costs, expenses, uses of cash, capital requirements, our need for additional financing or the period for which our existing cash resources will be sufficient to meet our operating requirements; or

our strategies, prospects, plans, expectations, forecasts or objectives.
Words such as, but not limited to, “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “forecast,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “targets,” “likely,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” “scheduled” and similar expressions or phrases, or the negative of those expressions or phrases, are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, we caution you that these statements are based on our estimates and projections of the future that are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, level of activity, performance, experience or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement. Actual results, level of activity, performance, experience or achievements may differ materially from those expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement as a result of various important factors, including our critical accounting policies and risks and uncertainties relating, among other things, to:

the design, size, duration and endpoints for, and results from BOLD, our pivotal trial of odevixibat in biliary atresia, and ASSERT, our pivotal trial of odevixibat in ALGS, or any other trials that will be required to obtain marketing approval for odevixibat to treat patients with PFIC, biliary atresia, ALGS or any other pediatric cholestatic liver disease or for A3907 and A2342 as a potential treatments for adult liver and viral diseases;

whether favorable findings from clinical trials of odevixibat to date, including findings in our completed Phase 3 clinical trial in PFIC and findings in indications other than PFIC, will be predictive of results from future clinical trials, including our pivotal trial of odevixibat in biliary atresia and our pivotal trial of odevixibat in ALGS;
 
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whether either or both of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, and European Medicines Agency, or EMA, will determine that the primary endpoint and treatment duration of our completed Phase 3 trial in patients with PFIC are sufficient, even if such primary endpoint is met with statistical significance, to support approval of odevixibat in the United States or the European Union, to treat PFIC, a symptom of PFIC, a specific PFIC subtype(s) or otherwise, and whether either agency will complete their respective reviews within the target timelines, including the FDA’s Prescription Drug User Fee Act goal date of July 20, 2021, as a potential result of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic or otherwise;

the outcome and interpretation by regulatory authorities of an ongoing third-party study pooling and analyzing long-term PFIC patient data;

the timing for initiation or completion of, or for availability of data from, our pivotal trial of odevixibat in biliary atresia and our pivotal trial of odevixibat in ALGS, and the outcomes of such trials;

delays or other challenges in the recruitment of patients for the pivotal trial of odevixibat in biliary atresia and the pivotal trial of odevixibat in ALGS;

whether odevixibat will meet the criteria to receive a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher from the FDA when applicable, whether a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher that we may receive in the future for odevixibat, if any, will be valuable to us, and, if necessary, whether the rare pediatric disease priority review voucher program will be renewed beyond 2026;

the COVID-19 pandemic, which may negatively impact the conduct of, and the timing of initiation, enrollment, completion and reporting with respect to, our clinical trials; negatively impact the supply of drug product for our clinical and preclinical programs; and/or result in other adverse impacts on our business;

the competitive environment and commercial opportunity for a potential treatment for PFIC and other orphan pediatric cholestatic liver diseases;

the conduct and results of clinical trials and nonclinical studies and assessments of odevixibat, A3907, A2342 or any of our other product candidates and programs, including the performance of third parties engaged to execute them and difficulties or delays in patient enrollment and data analysis;

the medical benefit that may be derived from odevixibat, A3907, A2342 or any of our other product candidates;

the extent to which our agreement with EA Pharma for elobixibat generates nondilutive income for us;

the timing and success of submission, acceptance and approval of regulatory filings and any related restrictions, limitations or warnings in the label of any approved product candidates;

the significant control or influence that EA Pharma has over the commercialization of elobixibat in Japan and the development and commercialization of elobixibat in EA Pharma’s other licensed territories;

whether we elect to seek and, if so, our ability to establish a license or other partnering transaction with a third party for elobixibat in the United States or Europe;

the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, costs, future revenues, uses of cash and capital requirements;

our ability to obtain additional financing on reasonable terms, or at all;

our ability to establish additional licensing, collaboration or similar arrangements on favorable terms and our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

the success of competing third-party products or product candidates;
 
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our ability to successfully commercialize any approved product candidates, including their rate and degree of market acceptance;

whether we are able to maintain compliance with the terms and conditions of our loan and security agreement with Hercules Capital, Inc.;

our ability to expand and protect our intellectual property estate;

regulatory developments in the United States and other countries;

the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting;

the performance of our third-party suppliers, manufacturers and contract research organizations and our ability to obtain alternative sources of raw materials;

our ability to attract and retain key personnel; and

our ability to comply with regulatory requirements relating to our business, and the costs of compliance with those requirements, including those on data privacy and security.
These and other risks and uncertainties are described in greater detail under the caption “Risk Factors” in this prospectus, as updated and supplemented by the discussion of risks and uncertainties under “Risk Factors” contained in any supplements to this prospectus, or in the sections entitled “Business,” “Risk Factors,” “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” or “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or our subsequent current reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments thereto, as filed with the SEC and which are incorporated herein by reference. As a result of the risks and uncertainties, the results or events indicated by the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus or in any document incorporated herein by reference may not occur.
Investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement. Each forward-looking statement represents our views only as of the date of this prospectus or the date of the document incorporated by reference in this prospectus and should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments may cause our views to change. We expressly disclaim any obligation to update or alter any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make. All subsequent forward-looking statements attributable to us or to any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section.
 
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sale proceeds of up to $100,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We currently intend to use any net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for our operations and our further development and potential commercialization of any or all of our product candidates odevixibat, A3907 and A2342, as well as the development of other product candidates, and other general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, working capital, intellectual property protection and enforcement, capital expenditures, repayment of any existing indebtedness, investments, acquisitions and collaborations. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the progress of our clinical trials and other development efforts and other factors described under “Risk Factors” in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations. As a result, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds, if any, we receive in connection with the shares of our common stock offered pursuant to this prospectus for any purpose. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we may initially invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities or apply them to the reduction of short-term indebtedness.
 
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DILUTION
If you invest in our common stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the price per share of our common stock you pay in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.
As of December 31, 2020, our historical net tangible book value was $164.0 million, or $8.58 per share of common stock. Historical net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets less total liabilities, divided by 19,107,040, the number of shares of common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2020.
After giving effect to the assumed sale of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100.0 million at an assumed offering price of $36.68 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on February 24, 2021, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of December 31, 2020 would have been $260.8 million, or $11.95 per share of common stock. This amount represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $3.37 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of approximately $24.73 per share to new investors in this offering.
The following table illustrates this calculation on a per share basis. The as adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.
Assumed offering price per share
$ 36.68
Historical net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2020
$ 8.58
Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering
3.37
As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering
11.95
Dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering
$ 24.73
The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 2,726,281 shares of our common stock are sold during the term of the sales agreement with Cowen at a price of $36.68 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on February 24, 2021, for aggregate gross proceeds of $100.0 million. The shares subject to the sales agreement with Cowen are being sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $36.68 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100.0 million during the term of the sales agreement with Cowen is sold at that price, would increase our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $11.99 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $25.69 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $36.68 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100.0 million during the term of the sales agreement with Cowen is sold at that price, would decrease our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $11.90 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $23.78 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.
The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on an aggregate of 19,107,040 shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2020 and excludes:

2,371,823 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of December 31, 2020, at a weighted average exercise price of $23.89 per share, of which 1,024,923 shares were vested as of such date;

33,065 shares of our common stock issuable upon the vesting of restricted stock units outstanding as of December 31, 2020;
 
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258,500 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Inducement Plan as of December 31, 2020, and 1,688,204 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Plan as of December 31, 2020, plus up to an additional 574,979 shares subject to outstanding stock options granted under our 2017 Plan, 2016 Plan or 2010 Plan as of December 31, 2020, which may be issued under the 2018 Plan solely after the forfeiture, expiration or cancellation of such stock options; and

277,376 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 ESPP as of December 31, 2020.
To the extent that any shares are issued upon the exercise of outstanding options, the vesting of outstanding restricted stock units or otherwise pursuant to any grants made in the future under our 2020 Inducement Plan and 2018 Plan or any shares are issued under our 2018 ESPP, you will experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities may result in further dilution to our stockholders.
 
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
We are authorized to issue 30,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, and 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. On January 31, 2021, we had approximately 19,113,291 shares of common stock outstanding, no shares of preferred stock outstanding and approximately 24 stockholders of record.
The following summary of certain provisions of our capital stock does not purport to be complete. You should refer to the section of this prospectus entitled “Certain Provisions of Delaware Law and of the Company’s Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws” and our restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, which we refer to as our restated certificate of incorporation, and our amended and restated bylaws, which we refer to as our restated bylaws, both of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law.
Common Stock
General
Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future. All shares of common stock outstanding as of the date of this prospectus and, upon issuance and sale, all shares of common stock that we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, will be fully paid and nonassessable.
In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately our net assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. Our outstanding shares of common stock are validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, with offices at 1 State Street, 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004.
Stock Exchange Listing
Our common stock is listed for quotation on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “ALBO.”
Preferred Stock
Our board of directors may, without further action by our stockholders, from time to time, direct the issuance of shares of preferred stock in series and may, at the time of issuance, determine the rights, preferences and limitations of each series, including voting rights, dividend rights and redemption and liquidation preferences. Satisfaction of any dividend preferences of outstanding shares of preferred stock would reduce the amount of funds available for the payment of dividends on shares of our common stock. Holders of shares of preferred stock may be entitled to receive a preference payment in the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our company before any payment is made to the holders of shares of our common stock. In some circumstances, the issuance of shares of preferred stock may render more difficult or tend to discourage a merger, tender offer or proxy contest, the assumption of control by a holder of a large block of our securities or the removal of incumbent management. Upon the affirmative vote of our board of directors, without stockholder approval, we may issue shares of preferred stock with voting and conversion rights which could adversely affect the holders of shares of our common stock.
 
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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF DELAWARE LAW AND OF THE COMPANY’S CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS
Anti-Takeover Provisions
The provisions of Delaware law and our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws could discourage or make it more difficult to accomplish a proxy contest or other change in our management or the acquisition of control by a holder of a substantial amount of our voting stock. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish, or could deter, transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interests or in our best interests. These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continuity and stability in the composition of our board of directors and in the policies formulated by the board of directors and to discourage certain types of transactions that may involve an actual or threatened change of our control. These provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. Such provisions also may have the effect of preventing changes in our management.
Delaware Statutory Business Combinations Provision
We are subject to the anti-takeover provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Section 203 prohibits a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is, or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder was, approved in a prescribed manner or another prescribed exception applies. For purposes of Section 203, a “business combination” is defined broadly to include a merger, asset sale or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder, and, subject to certain exceptions, an “interested stockholder” is a person who, together with his or her affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years prior, did own, 15% or more of the corporation’s voting stock.
Classified Board of Directors; Removal of Directors for Cause
Pursuant to our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws, our board of directors is divided into three classes, with the term of office of each class to expire at the third annual meeting of stockholders following election. At each annual meeting of stockholders, directors elected to succeed those directors whose terms expire, other than directors elected by the holders of any series of preferred stock under specified circumstances, will be elected for a three-year term of office. All directors elected to our classified board of directors will serve until the election and qualification of their respective successors or their earlier death, resignation or removal. Members of the board of directors may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of our then outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class. These provisions are likely to increase the time required for stockholders to change the composition of the board of directors. For example, at least two annual meetings will be necessary for stockholders to effect a change in a majority of the members of the board of directors.
Advance Notice Provisions for Stockholder Proposals and Stockholder Nominations of Directors
Our restated bylaws provide that, for nominations to the board of directors or for other business to be properly brought by a stockholder before a meeting of stockholders, the stockholder must first have given timely notice of the proposal in writing to our Secretary. For an annual meeting, a stockholder’s notice generally must be delivered not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary of the previous year’s annual meeting date. For a special meeting, the notice must generally be delivered not earlier than the 120th day prior to the meeting and not later than the later of (1) the 90th day prior to the meeting or (2) the 10th day following the day on which public announcement of the meeting is first made. Detailed requirements as to the form of the notice and information required in the notice are specified in the restated bylaws. If it is determined that business was not properly brought before a meeting in accordance with our bylaw provisions, such business will not be conducted at the meeting.
 
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Special Meetings of Stockholders
Special meetings of the stockholders may be called only by the chairman of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer, our President or our board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors.
No Stockholder Action by Written Consent
Any action to be effected by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of the stockholders.
Super Majority Stockholder Vote Required for Certain Actions
The Delaware General Corporation Law provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless the corporation’s certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, require a greater percentage. Our restated certificate of incorporation requires the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the voting power of all of our outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, to amend or repeal any of the provisions discussed in this section of this prospectus. This 75% stockholder vote would be in addition to any separate class vote that might in the future be required pursuant to the terms of any preferred stock that might then be outstanding. A 75% vote is also required for any amendment to, or repeal of, our restated bylaws by the stockholders. Our restated bylaws may be amended or repealed by vote of a majority of the authorized number of directors.
Limitation of Liability and Indemnification
Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws provide that we shall indemnify our directors and executive officers to the fullest extent not prohibited by the Delaware General Corporation Law or any other applicable law, except that we are not required to indemnify any director or executive officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized by our board of directors, (iii) we provide such indemnification, in our sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in us under the Delaware General Corporation Law or any other applicable law, or (iv) such indemnification is required to be made under the enforcement provisions of our restated bylaws.
Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law permits a corporation to indemnify any director or officer of the corporation against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with any action, suit or proceeding brought by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the corporation, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner that he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, if he or she had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. In a derivative action (i.e., one brought by or on behalf of the corporation), indemnification may be provided only for expenses actually and reasonably incurred by any director or officer in connection with the defense or settlement of such an action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner that he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, except that no indemnification shall be provided if such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation, unless and only to the extent that the Delaware Chancery Court or the court in which the action or suit was brought shall determine that such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses despite such adjudication of liability.
Pursuant to Section 102(b)(7) of the Delaware General Corporation Law, Article Sixth of our restated certificate of incorporation eliminates the liability of a director to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for such a breach of fiduciary duty as a director to the fullest extent under applicable law, which does not include liabilities arising:

from any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;
 
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from acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

under Section 174 of the Delaware General Corporation Law; and

from any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers, in addition to the indemnification provided in our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, and intend to enter into indemnification agreements with any new directors and executive officers in the future. We have purchased and intend to maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer against any loss arising from any claim asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, subject to certain exclusions.
The foregoing discussion of our restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements and Delaware law is not intended to be exhaustive and is qualified in its entirety by such restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements or law.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.
 
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We have entered into a sales agreement with Cowen, under which we may issue and sell from time to time up to $100,000,000 of our common stock through Cowen as our sales agent. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on The Nasdaq Capital Market or any other trading market for our common stock. If authorized by us in writing, Cowen may purchase shares of our common stock as principal.
Cowen will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and Cowen. We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through Cowen on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum amount together with Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, Cowen will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct Cowen not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. Cowen or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through Cowen under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party. Cowen and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the sales agreement, to terminate the sales agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time.
The aggregate compensation payable to Cowen as sales agent equals 3.0% of the gross sales price of the shares sold through it pursuant to the sales agreement. In addition, we have agreed to reimburse Cowen for fees and disbursements related to its legal counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions payable to Cowen under the sales agreement, will be approximately $150,000.
The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory, or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.
Cowen will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on The Nasdaq Capital Market on each day in which common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume weighted average price of the shares sold, the compensation payable by us to Cowen, and the net proceeds to us.
We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through Cowen under the sales agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to Cowen in connection with the sales of common stock.
Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
In connection with the sales of our common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the sales agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. As sales agent, Cowen will not engage in any transaction that stabilizes our common stock.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market and trades under the symbol “ALBO.” The transfer agent of our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.
Cowen and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us for which services they have received and, may in the future receive, customary fees.
 
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LEGAL MATTERS
Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., Boston, Massachusetts, will pass upon the validity of the issuance of the securities to be offered by this prospectus. Cowen and Company, LLC is being represented by Goodwin Procter LLP, New York, New York in connection with this offering.
EXPERTS
Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. SEC filings are available at the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov.
This prospectus is only part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act, and therefore omits certain information contained in the registration statement. We have also filed exhibits and schedules with the registration statement that are excluded from this prospectus, and you should refer to the applicable exhibit or schedule for a complete description of any statement referring to any contract or other document.
We also maintain a website at www.albireopharma.com, through which you can access our SEC filings. The information set forth on our website is not part of this prospectus.
 
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INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information that we file with them. Incorporation by reference allows us to disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We filed a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with the SEC with respect to the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. This prospectus omits certain information contained in the registration statement, as permitted by the SEC. You should refer to the registration statement, including the exhibits, for further information about us and the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. Statements in this prospectus regarding the provisions of certain documents filed with, or incorporated by reference in, the registration statement are not necessarily complete and each statement is qualified in all respects by that reference. Copies of all or any part of the registration statement, including the documents incorporated by reference or the exhibits, are available at the SEC’s web site at http://www.sec.gov. The documents we are incorporating by reference are:

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 that we filed with the SEC on February 25, 2021;

our Current Reports on Form 8-K that we filed with the SEC on January 25, 2021 (except for the information furnished under Items 2.02 or 7.01 and the exhibits furnished thereto);

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on May 8, 2007, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and

all reports and other documents subsequently filed by us pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination or completion of the offering of securities under this prospectus shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus and to be a part hereof from the date of filing such reports and other documents.
The SEC file number for each of the documents listed above is 001-33451.
In addition, all reports and other documents filed by us pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.
You may request, orally or in writing, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated herein by reference. These documents will be provided to you at no cost, by contacting:
Albireo Pharma, Inc.
10 Post Office Square, Suite 1000
Boston, Massachusetts 02109
(857) 254-5555
You may also access these documents on our website, http://www.albireopharma.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.
You should rely only on information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We are not making offers to sell the securities in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.
 
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Albireo Pharma, Inc.
$100,000,000
Common Stock
PROSPECTUS
Cowen
February 25, 2021

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PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14.   Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution
The following table sets forth an itemization of the various expenses, all of which we will pay, in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered. All of the amounts shown are estimated except the SEC Registration Fee.
SEC Registration Fee
$ 10,910*
Printing Expenses
**
Legal Fees and Expenses
**
Accounting Fees and Expenses
**
Transfer Agent and Registrar Fees
**
Miscellaneous
**
Total
**
*
In accordance with Rules 456(b) and 457(r), we are deferring payment of all applicable registration fees for the securities offered under this registration statement, except for $10,910, related to $100,000,000 of the registrant’s common stock that may be issued and sold under a certain sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC.
**
Fees depend on number of issuances and amount of securities sold and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.
Item 15.   Indemnification of Directors and Officers
Delaware Law
Section 102 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (“DGCL”) permits a corporation to eliminate the personal liability of directors of a corporation to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except where the director breached his duty of loyalty, failed to act in good faith, engaged in intentional misconduct or knowingly violated a law, authorized the payment of a dividend or approved a stock repurchase in violation of Delaware corporate law or obtained an improper personal benefit.
Section 145 of the DGCL provides that a corporation has the power to indemnify a director, officer, employee, or agent of the corporation, or a person serving at the request of the corporation for another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise in related capacities against expenses, including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with an action, suit or proceeding to which he was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, ending or completed action, suit or proceeding by reason of such position, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, in any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his conduct was unlawful, except that, in the case of actions brought by or in the right of the corporation, no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or other adjudicating court determines that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all of the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.
Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Restated Bylaws
Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws provide that we shall indemnify our directors and executive officers to the fullest extent not prohibited by the DGCL or any other applicable
 
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law, except that we are not required to indemnify any director or executive officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized by our board of directors, (iii) we provide such indemnification, in our sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in us under the DGCL or any other applicable law, or (iv) such indemnification is required to be made under the enforcement provisions of our restated bylaws.
Our restated bylaws also provide that we shall advance to any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director or executive officer of the Company, or is or was serving at our request as a director or executive officer of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, prior to the final disposition of the proceeding, promptly following request therefor, all expenses incurred by any director or executive officer in connection with such proceeding. However, if the DGCL requires, an advancement of expenses incurred by a director or executive officer in his or her capacity as a director or executive officer (and not in any other capacity in which service was or is rendered by such indemnitee, including service to an employee benefit plan) shall be made only upon delivery to us of an undertaking by or on behalf of such indemnitee, to repay all amounts so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined by final judicial decision from which there is no further right to appeal that such indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified for such expenses under our restated bylaws or otherwise. Unless otherwise determined under our restated bylaws, no advance shall be made by the Company to an executive officer of the Company (except by reasons of the fact that such executive officer is or was a director of the Company) in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative of investigative, if a determination is reasonably and promptly made by (i) our board of directors by a majority vote of directors who were not parties to the proceeding, even if not a quorum, or (ii) by a committee of such directors designated by a majority vote of such directors, even though less than a quorum, or (iii) if there are no such directors, or such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, that the facts known to the decision-making party at the time such determination is made demonstrate clearly and convincingly that such person acted in bad faith or in a manner that such person did not believe to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Company.
Our restated certificate of incorporation eliminates the liability of a director to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for such a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liabilities arising:

from any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

from acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

under Section 174 of the DGCL; and

from any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
Indemnification Agreements
We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and officers, in addition to the indemnification provided in our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, and intend to enter into indemnification agreements with any new directors and executive officers in the future. Pursuant to our indemnification agreements, we have agreed to indemnify and hold harmless these directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL. The agreements generally cover expenses that a director or officer incurs or amounts that a director or officer becomes obligated to pay in connection with any proceeding in any way connected with, resulting from or relating to his or her service as a current or former director, officer, employee or agent of the Company or any direct or indirect subsidiary of the Company. The agreements also provide for the advancement of expenses to the directors and officers subject to specified conditions. There are certain exceptions to the Company’s obligation to indemnify the directors and officers, including with respect to “short-swing” profit claims under Section 16(b) of the Exchange Act; with respect to conduct by him or her that is established to be knowingly fraudulent or deliberately dishonest or constituted willful misconduct; and, with certain exceptions, with respect to proceedings that he or she initiates.
We have purchased and intend to maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer against any loss arising from any claim asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, subject to certain exclusions.
 
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The foregoing discussion of our restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements and Delaware law is not intended to be exhaustive and is qualified in its entirety by such restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements or law.
Item 16.   Exhibits
Exhibit
Number
Exhibit
Description
Filed
Herewith
Incorporated by
Reference herein
from Form or
Schedule
Filing Date
SEC File/Reg.
Number
 1.1* Form of Underwriting Agreement
 1.2 Sales Agreement, dated as of February 25, 2021, by and between the Registrant and Cowen and Company, LLC
X
 2.1
8-K
(Exhibit 2.1)
7/13/2016
001-33451
 4.1
S-3
(Exhibit 4.1.1)
10/13/2017
333-220958
 4.2
S-8
(Exhibit 4.2)
7/6/2007
333-144407
 4.3
10-K
(Exhibit 4.1)
12/22/2016
001-33451
 4.4* Form of Certificate of Amendment or Designation with respect to Preferred Stock.
 4.5* Form of Senior Debt Security.
 4.6* Form of Subordinated Debt Security.
 4.7
X
 4.8
X
 4.9* Form of Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.
 4.10* Form of Rights Agreement and Right Certificate.
 4.11* Form of Unit Agreement and Unit.
 5.1 Opinion of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. with respect to the legality of the securities being registered.
X
23.1
X
23.2 Consent of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. (included in Exhibit 5.1).
24.1 Powers of Attorney (included on signature page to the initial registration statement).
25.1* The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as
 
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Exhibit
Number
Exhibit
Description
Filed
Herewith
Incorporated by
Reference herein
from Form or
Schedule
Filing Date
SEC File/Reg.
Number
amended, of the Trustee under the Senior Indenture will be incorporated herein by reference from a subsequent filing in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.
25.2* The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Subordinated Indenture will be incorporated herein by reference from a subsequent filing in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.
*
To be subsequently filed, if applicable, as exhibits to an amendment to this registration statement or a Current Report on Form 8-K.
Item 17.   Undertakings
(a)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)
To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)
To include any prospectus required by section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii)
To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and
(iii)
To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.
(2)
That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
 
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(3)
To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4)
That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(i)
Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(ii)
Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(5)
That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i)
Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii)
Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii)
The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(iv)
Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(b)
That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act:
(i)
the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and
(ii)
each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
 
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(c)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(d)
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
(e)
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (“Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under section 305(b)(2) of the Act.
 
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Boston, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, on February 25, 2021.
ALBIREO PHARMA, INC.
By:
/s/ Ronald H.W. Cooper
Ronald H.W. Cooper
President and Chief Executive Officer
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
 

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SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY
We, the undersigned officers and directors of Albireo Pharma, Inc., hereby severally constitute and appoint Ronald H.W. Cooper, Simon N.R. Harford and Jason G. Duncan, Esq., and each of them singly (with full power to each of them to act alone), our true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution in each of them for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, and in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement (or any other registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite or necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or any of them or their or his or her substitute or substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.
Signature
Title
Date
/s/ Ronald H.W. Cooper
Ronald H.W. Cooper
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director (principal executive officer)
February 25, 2021
/s/ Simon N.R. Harford
Simon N.R. Harford
Chief Financial Officer (principal financial officer and principal accounting officer)
February 25, 2021
/s/ David Chiswell, Ph.D.
David Chiswell, Ph.D.
Chairman of the Board of Directors
February 25, 2021
/s/ Michael Gutch, Ph.D.
Michael Gutch, Ph.D.
Director
February 25, 2021
/s/ Roger A. Jeffs, Ph.D.
Roger A. Jeffs, Ph.D.
Director
February 25, 2021
/s/ Anne Klibanski, M.D.
Anne Klibanski, M.D.
Director
February 25, 2021
/s/ Stephanie S. Okey, M.S.
Stephanie S. Okey, M.S.
Director
February 25, 2021
/s/ Davey S. Scoon
Davey S. Scoon
Director
February 25, 2021
 

 

Exhibit 1.2

 

Execution Copy

 

Albireo pharma, Inc.

Common Stock

 

(par value $0.01 per share)

SALES AGREEMENT

 

February 25, 2021

 

Cowen and Company, LLC

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10022

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Albireo Pharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), as follows:

 

1.            Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through Cowen, acting as agent and/or principal, shares (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the number of shares of Common Stock issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and Cowen shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Common Stock through Cowen will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) filed by the Company, which became effective upon filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement (as defined below) to issue the Placement Shares.

 

The Company has filed or will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference certain documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”). The Company has prepared a prospectus specifically relating to the Placement Shares (the “Sales Prospectus”) included as part of such registration statement. The Company will make available to Cowen, for use by Cowen, copies of the Sales Prospectus, as supplemented from time to time by any prospectus supplement relating to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, as amended when it became effective, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or 462(b) of the Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The Sales Prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, which is included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by one or more prospectus supplements, in the form in which such prospectus and/or Sales Prospectus have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 of the Securities Act regulations (“Rule 433”), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is consented to by Cowen, hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus,” (ii) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (iii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission via the Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System (“EDGAR”).

 

 

 

 

2.            Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell the Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify Cowen by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires the Placement Shares to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one (1) Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from Cowen set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended in writing from time to time in accordance herewith. The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by Cowen unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, Cowen declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares thereunder have been sold, (iii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice for any reason, in the Company’s sole discretion, (iv) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding those contained in the earlier dated Placement Notice, or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Cowen in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor Cowen will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to Cowen that is not declined by Cowen pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

 

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3.            Sale of Placement Shares by Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Company’s delivery of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, Cowen, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with, the terms of such Placement Notice. Cowen will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to all of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder, setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold, the compensation payable by the Company to Cowen pursuant to Section 5(a) with respect to such sales, any other deductions to the gross proceeds of Placement Shares made by Cowen pursuant to Section 5(a) to calculate the Net Proceeds (as defined below) from such sale, and the Net Proceeds payable to the Company. In the event the Company engages Cowen for a sale of Placement Shares that would constitute a “block” within the meaning of Rule 10b-18(a)(5) under the Exchange Act (a “Block Sale”), the Company will provide Cowen, at Cowen’s request and upon advance notice of two business days to the Company, on or prior to the Settlement Date (as defined below), the opinions of counsel, accountant’s letter and officers’ certificates set forth in Section 8 hereof, each dated the Settlement Date, and such other documents and information as Cowen shall reasonably request. Subject to the terms of the Placement Notice, Cowen may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act, including without limitation sales made through Nasdaq or on any other existing trading market for the Common Stock. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 6(ww), Cowen shall not purchase Placement Shares for its own account as principal unless expressly authorized to do so by the Company in a Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that Cowen will be successful in selling Placement Shares, and (ii) Cowen will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by Cowen to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Section 3. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Company’s Common Stock is purchased and sold on Nasdaq. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, the Company shall not offer, sell or deliver, or request the offer or sale, of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and, by notice to Cowen given by telephone (confirmed promptly by email), shall cancel any instructions for the offer or sale of any Placement Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to offer or sell any Placement Shares, (i) during any period in which the Company is, or could be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information, or (ii) at any time from and including the date on which the Company shall issue a press release containing, or shall otherwise publicly announce, its earnings, revenues or other results of operations (an “Earnings Announcement”) through and including the time that the Company files a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K that includes consolidated financial statements as of and for the same period or periods, as the case may be, covered by such Earnings Announcement.

 

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4.            Suspension of Sales.

 

(a)            The Company or Cowen may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto, as such schedule may be amended in writing from time to time in accordance with Section 15.

 

(b)            If either Cowen or the Company has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied with respect to the Common Stock, it shall promptly notify the other party, and Cowen may, at its sole discretion, suspend sales of the Placement Shares under this Agreement.

 

(c)            The Registration Statement became automatically effective upon filing of the Registration Statement with the Commission on February 25, 2021. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Registration Statement is no longer effective under the Securities Act, the Company shall promptly notify Cowen, the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

 

5.            Settlement.

 

(a)            Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date” and the first such settlement date, the “First Delivery Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by Cowen at which such Placement Shares were sold, after deduction for (i) Cowen’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to Cowen hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) (Expenses) hereof, and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

 

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(b)            Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting Cowen’s or its designee’s account (provided Cowen shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least one (1) Trading Day prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System (“DWAC”) or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. Cowen will provide DWAC instructions or instructions for delivery by other means with regard to the electronic transfer of the Placement Shares. On each Settlement Date, Cowen will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized Placement Shares on a Settlement Date, the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) (Indemnification and Contribution), it will (i) hold Cowen harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or reasonable and documented expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company and (ii) pay to Cowen (without duplication) any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

 

6.            Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, Cowen that as of each Applicable Time (as defined in Section 20(a)):

 

(a)            Compliance with Registration Requirements. As of each Applicable Time other than the date of this Agreement, the Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement have been declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act, the Company has complied to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information relating to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, contemplated or threatened by the Commission. The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act. The sale of the Placement Shares hereunder meets the requirements of General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3.

 

(b)            No Misstatement or Omission. The Prospectus when filed complied and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act. Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any post-effective amendments or supplements thereto, at the time it became effective or its date, as applicable, complied and as of each of the Settlement Dates, if any, complied and will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and did not and, as of each Settlement Date, if any, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date, did not and, as of each of the Settlement Dates, if any, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The representations and warranties set forth in the two immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to Cowen furnished to the Company in writing by Cowen expressly for use therein. There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required.

 

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(c)            Offering Materials Furnished to Cowen. As of each Applicable Time, the Company has delivered to Cowen one complete copy of the Registration Statement and a copy of each consent and certificate of experts filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits) and the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and at such places as Cowen has reasonably requested. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (to the extent any such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus was required to be filed with the Commission) delivered to Cowen for use in connection with the public offering of the Placement Shares contemplated herein have been and will be identical to the versions of such documents transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.

 

(d)            Emerging Growth Company. The Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act. The Company agrees to notify Cowen promptly upon the Company ceasing to be an emerging growth company.

 

(e)            Well-Known Seasoned Issuer Status. (A) At the original effectiveness of the Registration Statement, (B) at the time of the most recent amendment thereto for the purposes of complying with Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act (whether such amendment was by post-effective amendment or incorporated report filed pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act or in the form of a prospectus), and (C) at the time the Company or any person acting on its behalf (within the meaning, for this clause only, of Rule 163(c) under the Securities Act) made any offer relating to the Shares in reliance on the exemption of Rule 163 under the Securities Act, the Company was and will be a “well-known seasoned issuer” (as defined in Rule 405).

 

(f)             Documents Incorporated by Reference. The documents incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, when they were filed with the Commission, conformed in all material respects to the requirements of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, as applicable, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder and none of such documents contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state any material fact required to be stated therein, or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; and any further documents so filed and incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, when such documents are filed with the Commission will conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, as applicable, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

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(g)            Distribution of Offering Materials. The Company has not, directly or indirectly, distributed and will not distribute, prior to the completion of Cowen’s distribution of the Placement Shares, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Prospectus, the Registration Statement or any other materials, if any, permitted under the Securities Act.

 

(h)            Not an Ineligible Issuer. At the time of filing the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, and at the date hereof, the Company was not, and the Company will not be, an “ineligible issuer,” as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

(i)              Organization and Good Standing. The Company and each of its subsidiaries (as defined in Section 20(b)) have been duly organized and are validly existing as corporations or other legal entities in good standing (or the foreign equivalent thereof) under the laws of their respective jurisdictions of organization. The Company and each of its subsidiaries are duly qualified to do business and are in good standing as foreign corporations or other legal entities in each jurisdiction in which their respective ownership or lease of property or the conduct of their respective businesses requires such qualification and have all power and authority (corporate or other) necessary to own or hold their respective properties and to conduct the businesses in which they are engaged, except where the failure to so qualify or have such power or authority would not (i) have, singularly or in the aggregate, a material adverse effect on the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, or (ii) impair in any material respect the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement or to consummate any transactions contemplated by this Agreement or the Prospectus (any such effect as described in clauses (i) or (ii), a “Material Adverse Effect”). The subsidiaries listed in Schedule 4 to this agreement are the only Significant Subsidiaries (as defined in Section 6(gg)).

 

(j)              The Sales Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

 

(k)             The Placement Shares. The Placement Shares to be sold by Cowen, acting as agent and/or principal for the Company, have been duly authorized and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable and will conform to the descriptions thereof in the Prospectus; and the issuance of the Placement Shares are not subject to any preemptive or similar rights that have not been waived.

 

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(l)              Capitalization. The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth under the heading “Description of Capital Stock” in the Sales Prospectus, and (i) to the Company’s knowledge, all of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company issued prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date (defined below) have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and non-assessable, have been issued in compliance with federal and state securities laws, and conform to the description thereof contained in the Sales Prospectus under the heading “Description of Capital Stock” and (ii) all of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company issued on and after the Share Exchange Closing Date have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and non-assessable, have been issued in compliance with federal and state securities laws, and conform to the description thereof contained in the Sales Prospectus under the heading “Description of Capital Stock”. To the Company’s knowledge, all of the Company’s options, warrants and other rights to purchase or exchange any securities for shares of the Company’s capital stock granted prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date have been duly authorized and validly issued and were issued in compliance with federal and state securities laws. All of the Company’s options, warrants and other rights to purchase or exchange any securities for shares of the Company’s capital stock granted on or after the Share Exchange Closing Date have been duly authorized and validly issued and were issued in compliance with federal and state securities laws. None of the outstanding shares of Common Stock was issued in violation of any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities of the Company. As of the date the Registration Statement is filed, there were or will be no authorized or outstanding shares of capital stock, options, warrants, preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other rights to purchase, or equity or debt securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for, any capital stock of the Company or any of its subsidiaries other than those described above or accurately described in the Prospectus. The description of the Company’s stock option, stock bonus and other stock plans or arrangements, and the options or other rights granted thereunder, as described in the Prospectus, accurately and fairly present the information required to be shown with respect to such plans, arrangements, options and rights. Reference is made to November 3, 2016, which was the date of the closing of the share exchange contemplated by the Amended and Restated Share Exchange Agreement dated as of July 13, 2016, by and among Biodel Inc., Albireo Limited and the sellers listed on Schedule I thereto (the “Share Exchange Closing Date”).

 

(m)            Capitalization of Subsidiaries. All the outstanding shares of capital stock (if any) of each subsidiary of the Company have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and, except to the extent set forth in the Prospectus, are owned by the Company directly or indirectly through one or more wholly-owned subsidiaries, free and clear of any claim, lien, encumbrance, security interest, restriction upon voting or transfer or any other claim of any third party.

 

(n)             No Conflicts. The execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement by the Company, the issue and sale of the Placement Shares by the Company and the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby will not (with or without notice or lapse of time or both) (i) conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, constitute a default or a Debt Repayment Triggering Event (as defined below) under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, encumbrance, security interest, claim or charge upon any property or assets of the Company or any subsidiary pursuant to, any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject, (ii) result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws (or analogous governing instruments, as applicable) of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or (iii) result in the violation of any law, statute, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree of any court or governmental or regulatory agency or body, domestic or foreign, having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their properties or assets except, in the case of clauses (i) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation or default that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. A “Debt Repayment Triggering Event” means any event or condition that gives, or with the giving of notice or lapse of time would give the holder of any note, debenture or other evidence of indebtedness (or any person acting on such holder’s behalf) the right to require the repurchase, redemption or repayment of all or a portion of such indebtedness by the Company of any of its subsidiaries.

 

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(o)             No Consents Required. Except for the registration of the offer and sale of the Placement Shares under the Securities Act and applicable state securities laws, and such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be required by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) or Nasdaq in connection with sale of the Placement Shares and the listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq, no consent, approval, authorization or order of, or filing, qualification or registration (each an “Authorization”) with, any court, governmental or regulatory agency or body, foreign or domestic, which has not been made, obtained or taken and is not in full force and effect, is required for the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement by the Company, the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares or the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby; and no event has occurred that allows or results in, or after notice or lapse of time or both would allow or result in, revocation, suspension, termination or invalidation of any such Authorization or any other impairment of the rights of the holder or maker of any such Authorization.

 

(p)             Independent Auditors. Ernst & Young LLP, who has audited and certified certain financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, is an independent registered public accounting firm with respect to the Company and its subsidiaries within the meaning of Article 2-01 of Regulation S-X and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (the “PCAOB”).

 

(q)             Financial Statements. The financial statements, together with the related notes, included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus and the Registration Statement fairly present, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position and the results of operations and changes in financial position of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries at the respective dates or for the respective periods therein specified. Such statements and related notes have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved except as may be set forth in the related notes included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus. The financial statements, together with the related notes, included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus comply in all material respects with Regulation S-X. No other financial statements or supporting schedules or exhibits are required by Regulation S-X to be described, included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus. The summary and selected financial data included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus and the Registration Statement fairly present, in all material respects, the information shown therein as at the respective dates and for the respective periods specified and are derived from the consolidated financial statements incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and other financial information. All information contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as defined in Regulation G) complies with Regulation G and Item 10 of Regulation S-K, to the extent applicable.

 

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(r)             eXtensible Business Reporting Language. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance in all material respects with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

 

(s)            No Material Adverse Change. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has sustained, since the date of the latest audited financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus: (i) any material loss or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor dispute or action, order or decree of any court or governmental or regulatory authority, otherwise than as set forth or contemplated in the Prospectus; (ii) any change in the capital stock (other than the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of stock options and warrants and vesting of restricted stock units described as outstanding in, and the grant of options and awards under existing equity incentive plans described in, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus) or any increase in the long-term debt of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, otherwise than as set forth or contemplated in the Prospectus; (iii) any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, set aside for payment, paid or made by the Company on any class of capital stock; or (iv) any material adverse change, or any development involving a prospective material adverse change, in or affecting the business, properties, assets, general affairs, management, financial position, prospects, stockholders’ equity or results of operations of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, otherwise than as set forth or contemplated in the Prospectus.

 

(t)             Legal Proceedings. Except as set forth in Prospectus, there is no legal or governmental proceeding to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or of which any property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is the subject, including any proceeding before the United States Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“FDA”) or comparable federal, state, local or foreign governmental bodies (it being understood that the interaction between the Company and the FDA and such comparable governmental bodies relating to the testing, nonclinical and clinical development, manufacture and product approval process shall not be deemed proceedings for purposes of this representation), which is required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or a document incorporated by reference therein and is not described therein, or which, singularly or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and no such proceedings are, to the Company’s knowledge after reasonable investigation and due diligence inquiry (if investigation or inquiry is reasonable under the circumstances) (“Knowledge”), threatened or contemplated by governmental or regulatory authorities or threatened by others. The Company is in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, regulations, orders and decrees governing its business as prescribed by the FDA, or any other federal, state or foreign agencies or bodies engaged in the regulation of pharmaceuticals or biohazardous substances or materials, except where noncompliance would not, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. All preclinical and clinical studies conducted by or on behalf of the Company to support approval for commercialization of the Company’s products have been conducted by the Company, or to the Company’s Knowledge by third parties, in compliance with all applicable federal, state or foreign laws, rules, orders and regulations, except for such failure or failures to be in compliance as would not reasonably be expected to have, singularly or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(u)             No Violation or Default. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws (or analogous governing instrument, as applicable), (ii) in default in any respect, and no event has occurred which, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement, lease or other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it is bound or to which any of its property or assets is subject, or (iii) in violation in any respect of any law, ordinance, governmental rule, regulation or court order, decree or judgment to which it or its property or assets may be subject (including, without limitation, those administered by the FDA or by any foreign, federal, state or local governmental or regulatory authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA) except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such violation or default that would not, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(v)             Licenses or Permits. The Company and its subsidiaries possess all licenses, certificates, authorizations and permits issued by, and have made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate local, state, federal or foreign governmental or regulatory agencies or bodies (including, without limitation, those administered by the FDA or by any foreign, federal, state or local governmental or regulatory authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA) that are necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or the conduct of their respective businesses as now conducted or as proposed in the Prospectus to be conducted (collectively, the “Governmental Permits”), except where any failure to possess or make the same would not, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company and its subsidiaries are in compliance, in all material respects, with all such Governmental Permits; and all such Governmental Permits are valid and in full force and effect, except where the validity or failure to be in full force and effect would not, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any subsidiary has received notification of any revocation, modification, suspension, termination or invalidation (or proceedings related thereto) of any such Governmental Permit and the Company has no reason to believe that any such Governmental Permit will not be renewed.

 

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(w)            Regulatory Matters. The preclinical tests or studies or clinical trials conducted by or on behalf of the Company that are described in the Prospectus (the “Company Studies and Trials”) were, or if still pending are being, conducted in all material respects in accordance with experimental protocols, procedures and controls pursuant to, where applicable, accepted professional scientific standards, except as described in the Prospectus; the descriptions of the results of the Company Studies and Trials contained in the Prospectus are accurate in all material respects; the Company has no Knowledge of any other studies or trials not described in the Prospectus, the results of which are inconsistent with or call in question the results described or referred to in the Prospectus; and the Company has not received any notices or correspondence from the FDA or any foreign, state or local governmental body exercising comparable authority requiring the termination, suspension or material modification of any Company Studies or Trials that termination, suspension or material modification would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect and, to the Company’s Knowledge, there are no reasonable grounds for the same. The Company has obtained (or caused to be obtained) informed consent by or on behalf of each human subject who participated in the Company Studies and Trials. In using or disclosing patient information received by the Company in connection with the Company Studies and Trials, the Company has complied in all material respects with all laws and regulatory rules or requirements, in each case to the extent applicable, including, without limitation, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and the rules and regulations thereunder. To the Company’s Knowledge, none of the Company Studies and Trials involved any investigator who has been disqualified as a clinical investigator or has been found by the FDA to have engaged in scientific misconduct. To the Company’s Knowledge, the manufacturing facilities and operations of its suppliers are operated in compliance in all material respects with all applicable statutes, rules, regulations and policies of the FDA and comparable regulatory agencies outside of the United States to which the Company is subject. For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(x)             Investment Company Act. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is or, after giving effect to the offering of the Placement Shares and the application of Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus, will be required to register as an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

 

(y)            No Stabilization. Neither the Company nor, to the Company’s Knowledge, any of its officers, directors or affiliates has taken or will take, directly or indirectly, any action designed or intended to stabilize or manipulate the price of any security of the Company, or which caused or resulted in, or which might in the future reasonably be expected to cause or result in, stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company.

 

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(z)            Intellectual Property. Except as disclosed in the Prospectus, the Company or its subsidiaries own or possess the lawful right to use all (i) valid and enforceable patents, patent applications, trademarks, trademark registrations, service marks, service mark registrations, Internet domain name registrations, copyrights, copyright registrations, licenses, trade secret rights (“Intellectual Property Rights”) and (ii) inventions, software, works of authorships, trademarks, service marks, trade names, databases, formulae, know how, Internet domain names and other intellectual property (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary confidential information, systems, or procedures) (collectively, “Intellectual Property Assets”) necessary to conduct their respective businesses as currently conducted, and as proposed to be conducted and described in the Prospectus. The Company and its subsidiaries have not received any opinion from their legal counsel concluding that any activities of their respective businesses infringe, misappropriate, or otherwise violate, valid and enforceable Intellectual Property Rights of any other person, and have not received written notice of any challenge, which is to their Knowledge still pending, by any other person to the rights of the Company and its subsidiaries with respect to any Intellectual Property Rights or Intellectual Property Assets owned or used by the Company or its subsidiaries. To the Company’s Knowledge, the Company and its subsidiaries’ respective businesses as now conducted do not give rise to any infringement of, any misappropriation of, or other violation of, any valid and enforceable Intellectual Property Rights of any other person. All licenses for the use of the Intellectual Property Rights described in the Prospectus are valid, binding upon, and enforceable by or against the respective parties thereto in accordance with their respective terms. The Company has complied in all material respects with, and is not in breach nor has received any asserted or threatened claim of breach of any license of its Intellectual Property Rights, and the Company has no knowledge of any breach or anticipated breach by any other person to any Intellectual Property license. Except as described in the Prospectus, no claim has been made against the Company alleging the infringement by the Company of any patent, trademark, service mark, trade name, copyright, trade secret, license in or other intellectual property right or franchise right of any person. The Company has taken reasonable steps to protect, maintain and safeguard its Intellectual Property Rights, including the execution of appropriate nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements. The consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement will not result in the loss or impairment of or payment of any additional amounts with respect to, nor require the consent of any other person in respect of, the Company’s right to own, use, or hold for use any of the Intellectual Property Rights as owned, used or held for use in the conduct of the business as currently conducted. No claims have been asserted or threatened against the Company alleging a violation of any person’s privacy or personal information or data rights and the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby will not breach or otherwise cause any violation of any law related to privacy, data protection, or the collection and use of personal information collected, used, or held for use by the Company in the conduct of the Company’s business. The Company takes reasonable measures to ensure that such information is protected against unauthorized access, use, modification, or other misuse. For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(aa)          Title to Real and Personal Property. Except as disclosed in the Prospectus, the Company and each of its subsidiaries have good and marketable title in and (in the case of real property) to, or have valid and marketable rights to lease or otherwise use, all items of real or personal property which are material to the business of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, security interests, claims and defects except those that (i) do not, singularly or in the aggregate, materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company or any of its subsidiaries or (ii) would not reasonably be expected, singularly or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(bb)          No Labor Dispute. There is (A) no significant unfair labor practice complaint pending against the Company, or any of its subsidiaries, nor to the Company’s Knowledge, threatened against it or any of its subsidiaries, before the National Labor Relations Board, any state or local labor relation board or any foreign labor relations board, and no significant grievance or significant arbitration proceeding arising out of or under any collective bargaining agreement is so pending against the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or, to the Company’s Knowledge, threatened against it and (B) no labor disturbance by or dispute with, employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists or, to the Company’s Knowledge, is contemplated or threatened, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its or its subsidiaries’ principal suppliers, manufacturers, customers or contractors, that would reasonably be expected, singularly or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company is not aware that any key employee or significant group of employees of the Company or any subsidiary plans to terminate employment with the Company or any such subsidiary. For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(cc)           Compliance with ERISA. No “prohibited transaction” (as defined in Section 406 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, including the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (“ERISA”), or Section 4975 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended from time to time (the “Code”)) or “accumulated funding deficiency” (as defined in Section 302 of ERISA) or any of the events set forth in Section 4043(b) of ERISA (other than events with respect to which the thirty (30)-day notice requirement under Section 4043 of ERISA has been waived) has occurred or would reasonably be expected to occur with respect to any employee benefit plan of the Company or any of its subsidiaries which would, singularly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. Each employee benefit plan of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is in compliance in all material respects with applicable law, including ERISA and the Code. The Company and its subsidiaries have not incurred, and would not reasonably be expected to incur, liability under Title IV of ERISA with respect to the termination of, or withdrawal from, any pension plan (as defined in ERISA). Each pension plan for which the Company or any of its subsidiaries would have any liability that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified, and nothing has occurred, whether by action or by failure to act, which would, singularly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to cause the loss of such qualification. For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

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(dd)          Environmental Laws and Hazardous Materials. The Company and its subsidiaries are in compliance in all material respects with all foreign, federal, state and local rules, laws and regulations relating to the use, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous or toxic substances or waste and protection of health and safety or the environment which are applicable to their businesses (“Environmental Laws”). There has been no storage, generation, transportation, handling, treatment, disposal, discharge, emission, or other release of any kind of toxic or other wastes or other hazardous substances by, due to, or caused by the Company or any of its subsidiaries (or, to the Company’s Knowledge, any other entity for whose acts or omissions the Company or any of its subsidiaries is or may otherwise be liable) upon any of the property now or previously owned or leased by the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or upon any other property, in violation of any law, statute, ordinance, rule, regulation, order, judgment, decree or permit or which would, under any law, statute, ordinance, rule (including rule of common law), regulation, order, judgment, decree or permit, give rise to any liability; and there has been no disposal, discharge, emission or other release of any kind onto such property or into the environment surrounding such property of any toxic or other wastes or other hazardous substances with respect to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries has knowledge. For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(ee)           Taxes. The Company and its subsidiaries each (i) have timely filed all necessary federal, state, local and foreign tax returns, and all such returns were true, complete and correct, (ii) have paid all federal, state, local and foreign taxes due and payable, for which it is liable, including, without limitation, all sales and use taxes and all taxes which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is obligated to withhold from amounts owing to employees, creditors and third parties, and (iii) do not have any tax deficiency or claims outstanding or assessed or, to its Knowledge, proposed against any of them, except those, in each of the cases described in clauses (i), (ii) and (iii) above, that would not, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(ff)            Insurance. The Company and each of its subsidiaries carry, or are covered by, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is adequate for the conduct of their respective businesses and the value of their respective properties. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business at a cost that would not have a Material Adverse Effect. None of (i) Albireo Limited or any of its subsidiaries prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date or (ii) the Company or any of its subsidiaries from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date has received written notice from any insurer, agent of such insurer or the broker of the Company or any of its subsidiaries that any material capital improvements or any other material expenditures (other than premium payments) are required or necessary to be made in order to continue such insurance.

 

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(gg)          Accounting Controls. The Company and each of its subsidiaries maintains a system of “internal control over financial reporting” (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the General Rules and Regulations under the Exchange Act (the “Exchange Act Rules”)) that, except as described in the Prospectus, complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act and has been designed by their respective principal executive and principal financial officers, or under their supervision, to provide reasonable assurances that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences and (v) interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto. Except as described in the Prospectus, (1) the Company’s internal control over financial reporting is effective and (2) since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been (A) no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and (B) no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

(hh)          Disclosure Controls. The Company and its subsidiaries maintain disclosure controls and procedures (as such is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act Rules) that comply with the requirements of the Exchange Act; such disclosure controls and procedures have been designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company and its subsidiaries in reports that they file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including controls and procedures designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management to allow timely decisions regarding disclosures. Since the Share Exchange Closing Date, the Company and its subsidiaries have conducted evaluations of the effectiveness of their disclosure controls as required by Rule 13a-15 of the Exchange Act.

 

(ii)             Minute Books. The minute books of the Company and each of its subsidiaries that would be a “significant subsidiary” within the meaning of Rule 1-02(w) of Regulation S-X (such a significant subsidiary of the Company, a “Significant Subsidiary”) have been made available to Cowen and counsel for Cowen, and such books (i) contain a complete summary, in all material respects, of all meetings and actions of the board of directors (including each board committee) and stockholders of the Company (or analogous governing bodies and interest holders, as applicable), and each of its Significant Subsidiaries since the time of its respective incorporation or organization through the date of the latest meeting and action, and (ii) accurately in all material respects reflect all transactions referred to in such minutes. For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its Significant Subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its Significant Subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its Significant Subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

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(jj)             No Undisclosed Relationships. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any of its subsidiaries on the one hand, and the directors, officers, stockholders (or analogous interest holders), customers or suppliers of the Company or any of its affiliates on the other hand, which is required to be described in the Prospectus or a document incorporated by reference therein and which is not so described.

 

(kk)           No Registration Rights. No person or entity has the right to require registration of shares of Common Stock or other securities of the Company or any of its subsidiaries because of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the offer or sale of any Placement Shares, except for persons and entities who have expressly waived such right in writing or who have been given timely and proper written notice and have failed to exercise such right within the time or times required under the terms and conditions of such right. Except as described in the Prospectus, there are no persons with registration rights or similar rights to have any securities registered by the Company or any of its subsidiaries under the Securities Act.

 

(ll)             Margin Rules. The application of the proceeds received by the Company from the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares as described in the Prospectus will not violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve system or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

 

(mm)         No Broker’s Fees. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is a party to any contract, agreement or understanding with any person (other than this Agreement) that would give rise to a valid claim against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or Cowen for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or like payment in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares or any transaction contemplated by this Agreement or the Sales Prospectus.

 

(nn)          No Restrictions on Subsidiaries. Except as described in the Prospectus, no subsidiary of the Company is currently prohibited, directly or indirectly, under any agreement or other instrument to which it is a party or is subject, from paying any dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution on such subsidiary’s capital stock, from repaying to the Company any loans or advances to such subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any of such subsidiary’s properties or assets to the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company.

 

(oo)          Forward-Looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) contained in the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

 

(pp)          Listing. The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or 12(g) of the Exchange Act and is listed on Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or FINRA is contemplating terminating such registration or listing.

 

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(qq)          Sarbanes-Oxley Act. There is and, since the Share Exchange Closing Date, has been no failure on the part of the Company or, to the Company’s Knowledge, any of the Company’s officers or directors, in their capacities as such, to comply with any provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), including Section 402 related to loans and Sections 302 and 906 related to certifications.

 

(rr)            Related Party Transactions. There are no business relationships or related-party transactions involving the Company or any subsidiary or any other person required to be described in the Prospectus which have not been described as required.

 

(ss)           No Unlawful Payments. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the Company’s Knowledge, any director, officer, employee, agent, affiliate or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any subsidiary, has (i) used any corporate funds for unlawful contributions, gifts, entertainment or other unlawful expenses relating to political activity, (ii) made any direct or indirect unlawful payment to foreign or domestic government officials or employees, political parties or campaigns, political party officials, or candidates for political office from corporate funds, (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or any applicable anti-corruption laws, rules, or regulations of any other jurisdiction in which the Company or any subsidiary conducts business, or (iv) made any other unlawful bribe, rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback, or other unlawful payment to any person. For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(tt)            Statistical and Market Data. The statistical and market related data included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes to be reliable and accurate (but has not independently verified), and such data agree with the sources from which they are derived.

 

(uu)          Compliance with Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with all applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the U.S. Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), and the applicable anti-money laundering statutes of jurisdictions where the Company and its subsidiaries conduct business, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”), and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened. For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

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(vv)           Compliance with OFAC.

 

(A)Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any director, officer, employee, agent, affiliate or representative of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, is an individual or entity (“Person”) that is, or is owned or controlled by a Person that is: (i) the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), the United Nations Security Council (“UNSC”), the European Union (“EU”), Her Majesty’s Treasury (“HMT”), or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor (ii) located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of a U.S. government embargo (including, without limitation, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Syria and the Crimea).

 

(B)The Company will not, directly or indirectly, use the Net Proceeds, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such Net Proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other Person: (i) to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any Person that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions, or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of a U.S. government embargo; or (ii) in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any Person (including any Person participating in the offering, whether as agent, underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise).

 

(C)For the past five (5) years, the Company and its subsidiaries have not knowingly engaged in, are not now knowingly engaged in, and will not engage in, any direct or indirect dealings or transactions with any Person that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions or any country or territory that, at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of a U.S. government embargo. For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(ww)         No Associated Persons; FINRA Matters. Neither the Company nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any of its affiliates (within the meaning of FINRA Rule 5121(f)(1)) directly or indirectly controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, or is an associated person (within the meaning of Article I, Section 1(ee) of the By-laws of FINRA) of, any member firm of FINRA.

 

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(xx)            Cybersecurity. (A) To the knowledge of the Company, there has been no security breach or incident, unauthorized access or disclosure, or other compromise of or relating to the Company’s or its subsidiaries’ information technology and computer systems, networks, hardware, software, data and databases (including the data and information of their respective customers, employees, suppliers, vendors and any third party data maintained, processed or stored by the Company and its subsidiaries, and any such data processed or stored by third parties on behalf of the Company and its subsidiaries), equipment or technology (collectively, “IT Systems and Data”) that would result in a Material Adverse Effect; (B) neither the Company nor its subsidiaries have been notified of, or have any knowledge of, any event or condition that would result in, any security breach or incident, unauthorized access or disclosure or other compromise to their IT Systems and Data; and (C) the Company and its subsidiaries have implemented appropriate controls, procedures, and technological safeguards that it believes to be necessary and appropriate to maintain and protect the integrity, continuous operation, redundancy and security of their IT Systems and Data reasonably consistent with industry standards and practices, or as required by applicable regulatory standards. Except as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and its subsidiaries are presently in material compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification. For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(yy)          Privacy Laws.  The Company and each of its subsidiaries are in material compliance with all applicable data privacy and security laws and regulations, including, without limitation, the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) (EU 2016/679) (collectively, “Privacy Laws”).  The execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement or any other agreement referred to in this Agreement will not result in a material breach by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any applicable Privacy Laws.  Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries (i) has received notice of any actual or potential liability under, or actual or potential material violation of, any of the Privacy Laws, and has no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice, or (ii) is a party to any order or decree that imposes any obligation or liability under any Privacy Law. For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date

 

(zz)           No Reliance. The Company has not relied upon Cowen or legal counsel for Cowen for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

 

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(aaa)        Cowen Purchases. The Company acknowledges and agrees that Cowen has informed the Company that Cowen may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, purchase and sell shares of Common Stock for its own account while this Agreement is in effect, provided, that (i) no such purchase or sales shall take place while a Placement Notice is in effect (except to the extent Cowen may engage in sales of Placement Shares purchased or deemed purchased from the Company as a “riskless principal” or in a similar capacity) and (ii) the Company shall not be deemed to have authorized or consented to any such purchases or sales by Cowen.

 

Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to Cowen or to counsel for Cowen shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company to Cowen as to the matters set forth therein.

 

The Company acknowledges that Cowen and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 7, counsel to the Company and counsel to Cowen, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

 

7.            Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Cowen that:

 

(a)            Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act) (the “Prospectus Delivery Period”): (i) the Company will notify Cowen promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information, insofar as it relates to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement; (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon Cowen’s reasonable request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, insofar as it relates to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, that, in Cowen’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable to comply with law in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by Cowen (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement, and provided, further, that the only remedy Cowen shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to make such filing shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Cowen within a reasonable period of time before the filing and Cowen has not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement, and provided, further, that the only remedy Cowen shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to make such submission to Cowen shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to Cowen at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act. Prior to the initial sale of any Placement Shares, the Company shall file a final Sales Prospectus pursuant to Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act relating to the Placement Shares.

 

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(b)            Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise Cowen, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued.

 

(c)            Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During the Prospectus Delivery Period, the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates (taking into account any extensions available under the Exchange Act that would permit the Company to continue to meet the eligibility requirements of Form S-3) all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify Cowen to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that the Company may delay the filing of any amendment or supplement if, in the judgment of the Company, it is in the best interests of the Company to do so. Until such time as the Company shall have corrected such statement or omission or effected such compliance, the Company shall not request that Cowen resume the offering of Placement Shares.

 

(d)            Listing of Placement Shares. During the Prospectus Delivery Period, the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on Nasdaq and to qualify the Placement Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions in the United States as Cowen reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities or file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction.

 

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(e)            Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to Cowen and its counsel (at the reasonable expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during the Prospectus Delivery Period (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as Cowen may from time to time reasonably request and, at Cowen’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to Cowen to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

 

(f)             Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act. The Company’s compliance with the periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of this Section 7(f).

 

(g)            Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated in accordance with the provisions of Section 11, will pay the following expenses all incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including, but not limited to, expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, and of each Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto, (ii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the qualification of the Placement Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(d) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for Cowen in connection therewith shall be paid by Cowen), (iv) the printing and delivery to Cowen of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Placement Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, of the Commission, (vii) the filing fees for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department, and (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of Cowen’s counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000.

 

(h)            Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

 

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(i)             Notice of Other Sales. During the pendency of any Placement Notice given hereunder, and for five (5) Trading Days following the termination of any Placement Notice given hereunder, the Company shall provide Cowen notice as promptly as reasonably possible before it offers to sell, contracts to sell, sells, grants any option to sell or otherwise disposes of any shares of Common Stock (other than Placement Shares offered pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Stock; provided, that such notice shall not be required in connection with (i) the issuance, grant or sale of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock, restricted shares of Common Stock, restricted stock units, other equity awards, or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise or vesting of options, restricted stock units or other equity awards pursuant to any stock option, stock bonus or other stock plan or arrangement described in the Prospectus, (ii) the issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition, merger or sale or purchase of assets, (iii) the issuance or sale of Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company may adopt from time to time, provided the implementation of such plan is disclosed to Cowen in advance, (iv) the issuance or sale of any shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding or disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to Cowen prior to the date of the applicable Placement Notice, or (v) the issuance or sale of Common Stock, or securities convertible into or exercisable for Common Stock, offered and sold in a privately-negotiated transaction to vendors, customers, strategic partners or potential strategic partners and otherwise conducted in a manner so as not to be integrated with the offering of Placement Shares. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, nothing herein shall be construed to restrict the Company’s ability, or require the Company to provide notice to Cowen, to file a registration statement under the Securities Act.

 

(j)              Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Placement Shares, advise Cowen promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(k)             Due Diligence Cooperation. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by Cowen or its agents in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, at mutually convenient times during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as Cowen may reasonably request.

 

(l)             Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that, on or before such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the amount of Placement Shares sold through Cowen, the Net Proceeds and the compensation payable by the Company to Cowen with respect to such Placement Shares (provided that the Company may also satisfy its obligations under this Section 7(l)(i) by including such information in a filing under the Exchange Act), and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market. The Company shall disclose in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and in its annual report on Form 10-K the number of the Placement Shares sold through Cowen under this Agreement, the gross proceeds and Net Proceeds to the Company from the sale of the Placement Shares and the compensation paid by the Company with respect to sales of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter or, in the case of an Annual Report on Form 10-K, during the fiscal year covered by such Annual Report and the fourth quarter of such fiscal year.

 

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(m)           Representation Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and each time the Company subsequently thereafter during the term of this Agreement: (i) files the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares, (ii) amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Sales Prospectus (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l)) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference to the Registration Statement or the Sales Prospectus; (iii) files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act; (iv) files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or (v) files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than a filing made in connection with the issuance of an earnings release or other information “furnished” under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (v) shall be a “Representation Date); the Company shall furnish Cowen with certificates, in the forms attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) within three (3) Trading Days after such Representation Date if requested by Cowen. The requirement to provide the certificates under this Section 7(m) shall be automatically waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date; provided, however, that such waiver shall not apply for any Representation Date that is the date on which the Company files its annual report on Form 10-K; and provided, further, that the requirement to provide the certificate of the Chief Financial Officer of the Company under this Section 7(m) shall be automatically waived for each Representation Date unless the Comfort Letter provided with respect to such Representation Date does not cover all financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide Cowen with certificates under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or Cowen sells any Placement Shares, the Company shall provide Cowen with certificates, in the forms attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), each dated the date of the Placement Notice.

 

(n)            Legal Opinion. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within five (5) Trading Days after each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver certificates in the forms attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen a written opinion of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered, substantially similar to the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(n), modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent Representation Dates, Company Counsel may furnish Cowen with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that Cowen may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).

 

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(o)            Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within five (5) Trading Days after each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver certificates in the forms attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen a letter (the Comfort Letter), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the Initial Comfort Letter) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

 

(p)            Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase the Placement Shares, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than Cowen; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of its common stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

 

(q)            Insurance. The Company and its subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business in which it is engaged.

 

(r)             Compliance with Laws. The Company and each of its subsidiaries shall use its reasonable best efforts to maintain, or cause to be maintained, all material environmental permits, licenses and other authorizations required by federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus, and the Company and each of its subsidiaries shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations and with applicable environmental laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(s)            Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor its subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act, assuming no change in the Commission’s current interpretations as to entities that are not considered an investment company.

 

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(t)             Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Company will use its reasonable best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.

 

(u)            No Offer to Sell. Other than the Prospectus and any free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) approved in advance by the Company and Cowen in its capacity as principal or agent hereunder, neither Cowen nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than Cowen in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.

 

(v)            Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and its subsidiaries will use their reasonable best efforts to comply with all effective and applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

 

(w)           Affirmation. Each Placement Notice delivered by the Company to Cowen shall be deemed to be (i) an affirmation that the representations, warranties and agreements of the Company herein contained and contained in any certificate delivered to Cowen pursuant hereto are true and correct at the time of delivery of such Placement Notice, and (ii) an undertaking that such representations, warranties and agreements will be true and correct on any applicable Time of Sale and Settlement Date, as though made at and as of each such time (it being understood that such representations, warranties and agreements shall relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of such Placement Notice acceptance).

 

(x)             Renewal. If immediately prior to the third anniversary (the “Renewal Deadline”) of the initial effective date of the Registration Statement, the aggregate gross sales price of Placement Shares sold by the Company is less than the Maximum Amount and this Agreement has not expired or been terminated, the Company will, prior to the Renewal Deadline, file, if it has not already done so and is eligible to do so, a new shelf registration statement relating to the Placement Shares, in a form satisfactory to Cowen, and, if not automatically effective, will use its best efforts to cause such registration statement to be declared effective within 60 days after the Renewal Deadline. The Company will take all other action necessary or appropriate to permit the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares to continue as contemplated in the expired registration statement relating to the Placement Shares. References herein to the Registration Statement shall include such new shelf registration statement.

 

8.            Conditions to Cowen’s Obligations. The obligations of Cowen hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by Cowen of a due diligence review satisfactory to Cowen in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by Cowen in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

 

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(a)            Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for the sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued by any Placement Notice.

 

(b)            No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus to be filed with the Commission; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, related Prospectus or such documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(c)            No Misstatement or Material Omission. Cowen shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

 

(d)            Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

 

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(e)            Company Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received the opinions of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

 

(f)            Cowen Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received from Goodwin Procter LLP, counsel for Cowen, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as Cowen may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for enabling them to pass upon such matters.

 

(g)            Comfort Letter. Cowen shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(o).

 

(h)            Representation Certificate. Cowen shall have received the certificates required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificates are required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

(i)             Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date, Cowen shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate Secretary or Assistant Secretary (if authorized by the bylaws of the Company or resolutions of the board of directors of the Company), in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel.

 

(j)             No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on Nasdaq.

 

(k)            Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver certificates pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to Cowen such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as Cowen may have reasonably requested. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company will furnish Cowen with such conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as Cowen shall have reasonably requested.

 

(l)             Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

 

(m)           Approval for Listing. The Placement Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.

 

(n)            No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit Cowen to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

 

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9.            Indemnification and Contribution.

 

(a)            Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless Cowen, the directors, officers, partners, employees and agents of Cowen and each person, if any, who (i) controls Cowen within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with Cowen (a “Cowen Affiliate”) from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including, but not limited to, any and all reasonable investigative, legal and other expenses incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with Section 9(c)) of, any action, suit or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party, or otherwise, or any claim asserted), as and when incurred, to which Cowen, or any such person, may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company in connection with this Agreement or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Common Stock under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated in it or necessary to make the statements in it not misleading in light of the circumstances under which they were made, or (z) any breach by the Company of any of its representations, warranties and agreements contained in this Agreement; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused directly or indirectly by an untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission, made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information relating to Cowen and furnished to the Company by Cowen expressly for inclusion in the Registration Statement or Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

 

(b)            Cowen Indemnification. Cowen agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company that signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company from and against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as and when incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with written information relating to Cowen and furnished to the Company by Cowen expressly for inclusion in the Registration Statement or Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that Cowen might otherwise have.

 

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(c)            Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party in writing of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the failure to so notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture or material impairment of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred after the indemnifying party receives a written invoice relating to fees, disbursements and other charges. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising or that may arise out of such claim, action or proceeding.

 

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(d)            Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or Cowen, the Company and Cowen will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than Cowen, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and Cowen may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by Cowen (before deducting expenses) from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and Cowen, on the other, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or Cowen, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and Cowen agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(d) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 9(c). Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(d), Cowen shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of Cowen, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer and director of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(d), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(d) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c), no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c).

 

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10.          Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of Cowen, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

 

11.          Termination.

 

(a)            Cowen shall have the right by giving written notice as hereinafter specified at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect has occurred that, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen, may materially impair the ability of Cowen to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; provided, however, in the case of any failure of the Company to deliver (or cause another person to deliver) any certification, opinion, or letter required under Sections 7(m), 7(n), or 7(o), Cowen’s right to terminate shall not arise unless such failure to deliver (or cause to be delivered) continues for more than thirty (30) days from the date such delivery was required; or (iii) any other condition of Cowen’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled; provided, however, Cowen’s right to terminate pursuant to this Section 11(a)(iii) shall not arise unless such condition, if capable of being fulfilled, is not fulfilled within ten (10) days after the date the Company is provided with written notice by Cowen that such condition has not been fulfilled, or (iv), any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g) (Expenses), Section 9 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 10 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 16 (Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction) and Section 17 (Waiver of Jury Trial) shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If Cowen elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), Cowen shall provide the required written notice as specified in Section 12 (Notices).

 

(b)            The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

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(c)            Cowen shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(d)            Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through Cowen on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(e)            This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not have any liability to Cowen for any discount, commission or other compensation with respect to any Placement Shares not sold through Cowen pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(f)             Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by Cowen or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

 

12.            Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to Cowen, shall be delivered to Cowen at Cowen and Company, LLC, 599 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10022, fax no. 646-562-1124, Attention: General Counsel, with a copy to Goodwin Procter LLP, fax no. 212-355-3333, Attention: Edwin O’Connor; or if sent to the Company, shall be delivered to Albireo Pharma, Inc., 10 Post Office Square, Suite 1000, Boston, MA 02109, Attention: Chief Financial Officer, email: simon.harford@albireopharma.com, with a copy to jason.duncan@albireopharma.com and to Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo P.C., fax no. 617-542-2241, Attention: Megan N. Gates. Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day (as defined below), or, if such day is not a Business Day on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

 

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13.            Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and Cowen and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 9. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that Cowen may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate of Cowen without obtaining the Company’s consent so long as such affiliate is a registered broker-dealer.

 

14.            Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share consolidation, stock split, stock dividend, recapitalization or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

 

15.            Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and Cowen. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement.

 

16.            Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction. This Agreement shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York without regard to the principles of conflicts of laws. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any transaction contemplated hereby, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

 

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17.            Waiver of Jury Trial. The Company and Cowen each hereby irrevocably waives any right it may have to a trial by jury in respect of any claim based upon or arising out of this Agreement or any transaction contemplated hereby.

 

18.            Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

 

(a)            Cowen has been retained solely to act as sales agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares and that no fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship between the Company and Cowen has been created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether Cowen has advised or is advising the Company on other matters;

 

(b)            the Company is capable of evaluating and understanding and understands and accepts the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

 

(c)            the Company has been advised that Cowen and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that Cowen has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship; and

 

(d)            the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against Cowen for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and agrees that Cowen shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders, partners, employees or creditors of the Company.

 

19.            Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission.

 

20.            Definitions. As used in this Agreement, the following terms have the respective meanings set forth below:

 

(a)              “Applicable Time” means each of the date of this Agreement, each Representation Date, the date on which a Placement Notice is given, and any date on which Placement Shares are sold hereunder.

 

(b)             “subsidiary” has the meaning set forth in Rule 405 under the Securities Act.

  

21.            Headings; Construction. The section and exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof. Each reference in this Agreement to any Section or Schedule shall be to such Section or Schedule of this Agreement, unless the context indicates otherwise.

 

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[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

 

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If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and Cowen, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and Cowen.

 

  Very truly yours,
     
  COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC
     
  By: /s/ Karen O’Reilly
    Name: Karen O’Reilly
    Title: Director
     
  ACCEPTED as of the date
  first-above written:
     
  ALBIREO PHARMA, INC.
     
  By: /s/ Ronald H.W. Cooper
  Name:  Ronald H.W. Cooper
  Title: President and Chief Executive Office

 

[Signature Page to Sales Agreement]

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 1

 

form of PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From:[                              ]

Cc:[                              ]
To:[                              ]

Subject:Cowen at the Market Offering—Placement Notice

 

Gentlemen:

 

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between Albireo Pharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”) dated February 25, 2021 (the “Agreement”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that Cowen sell up to [   ] shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, at a minimum market price of $[ ] per share. Sales should begin on the date of this Notice and shall continue until [DATE][all shares are sold] [the aggregate sales price of the shares reaches $[___]].

 

[The Company may include such other sales parameters as it deems appropriate]

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 2

 

Albireo Pharma, Inc.  
   
Ronald H.W. Cooper President and Chief Executive Officer
Simon Harford Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer
Jason Duncan Chief Legal Officer, General Counsel and Secretary
   
Cowen and Company, LLC  
   
Michael Murphy Director
William Follis Director

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 3

 

Compensation

 

Cowen shall be paid compensation equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Placement Shares pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.

 

 

 

 

SCHEDULE 4

 

Significant Subsidiaries

 

Albireo Limited, a limited company registered in England and Wales

 

Albireo AB, a limited liability company registered in Sweden

 

Elobix AB, a limited liability company registered in Sweden

 

Albireo Security Corp., a Massachusetts corporation

 

Albireo Pharma Security Corporation, a Massachusetts corporation

 

2

 

 

Exhibit 7(m) – Officer Certificate

 

OFFICER CERTIFICATE

 

[DATE]

 

The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected _______________________, of Albireo Pharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement dated February 25, 2021 (the “Sales Agreement”) between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, that to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned:

 

(i)       the representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date; and

 

(ii)       the Company has complied in all material respects with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

 

Capitalized terms used but not defined herein shall have the meanings ascribed to them in the Sales Agreement.

 

[Signature Page Follows]

 

 

 

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned has executed this certificate as of the date first written above.

 

  ALBIREO PHARMA, INC.
     
  By:  
    Name:
    Title:

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 7(m) – Chief Financial Officer’s Certificate

 

CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER’S CERTIFICATE

 

[DATE]

 

__________, in [his/her] capacity as Chief Financial Officer of Albireo Pharma, Inc. (the “Company”), pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement dated February 25, 2021 (the “Sales Agreement”) between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, hereby certifies that (capitalized terms used and not defined herein have the meanings ascribed to them in the Sales Agreement):

 

1.I have read the amounts circled on the copies of certain pages of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus attached hereto as Exhibit A.1

 

2.With regard to these amounts, I compared such amounts to the corresponding amounts included in or derived from the Company’s internal accounting records or schedules prepared by management from such accounting records for the applicable periods and found them to be in agreement.

 

3.These amounts are accurate in all material respects, and nothing has come to my attention that would cause me to believe that these amounts have been materially misstated or are materially misleading.

 

4.This certificate is being furnished to Cowen solely to assist Cowen in conducting and documenting its investigation of the affairs of the Company in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares covered by the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

 

[Signature page follows]

 

 

1 With respect to any Representation Date for which the Company is required to provide this Chief Financial Officer’s Certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement, Exhibit A will include only the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings but not covered by the Comfort Letter with respect to such Representation Date.

 

 

 

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned has executed this certificate as of the date first written above.

 

  ALBIREO PHARMA, INC.
     
  By:  
    Name: Simon Harford
    Title: Chief Financial Officer

 

[Signature Page to CFO Certificate]

 

 

 

 

Exhibit A

 

[See attached]

 

 

 

Exhibit 7(n) – Form of Company Counsel Opinion

 

Form of Company Counsel Opinion

 

1.The Company is a corporation and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the State of Delaware. The Company has the corporate power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and assets and to carry on its business as now conducted (as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus).

 

2.The Company is duly qualified and is in good standing as a foreign corporation authorized to do business in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

 

3.The Sales Agreement has been duly and validly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

 

4.The Placement Shares have been duly authorized and, when issued and paid for pursuant to the terms of the Sales Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable and free of any preemptive or similar rights arising by operation of the Company’s Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, or Amended and Restated Bylaws or the DGCL or, to our knowledge, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for the Placement Shares under any material agreement listed in the exhibit index to (i) the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, [DATE] (the “Form 10-K”), (ii) any Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed by the Company after the Form 10-K, or (iii) any Current Report on Form 8-K filed by the Company after the Form 10-K (a “Material Agreement”).

 

5.The Registration Statement has become effective under the Securities Act. To our knowledge, no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement under the Securities Act has been issued and no proceedings for that purpose have been instituted or threatened. The Prospectus has been filed in accordance with Rule 424(b) and 430B under the Securities Act.

 

6.The Registration Statement and the Prospectus (other than the financial statements and schedules and other financial data included or incorporated by reference therein, as to which we express no opinion), each appeared on its face to comply as of its respective effective or filing date in all material respects as to form with the requirements of the Securities Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission promulgated thereunder. For purposes of this paragraph, we have assumed that the statements made in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are correct and complete.

 

7.Each of the documents incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (the “Incorporated Documents”), when it was filed with the Commission, appeared on its face to comply as to form in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission promulgated thereunder. For purposes of this paragraph, we have assumed that the statements made in the Incorporated Documents are correct and complete.

 

 

 

 

8.The execution, delivery and performance by the Company of, and the compliance by the Company with the terms of, the Sales Agreement and the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares pursuant to the Sales Agreement do not (i) conflict with or result in a violation of any provision of the DGCL, or any federal law or rule or regulation of the United States of America that, in our experience, is normally applicable to transactions of the type contemplated by the Sales Agreement, any rule or regulation of the Nasdaq Capital Market (the “Exchange”) or any provision of the Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, or Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Company, (ii) conflict with, result in a breach of or constitute a default (or an event which with notice or lapse of time or both would become a default) under, or result in or permit the termination or modification of, a Material Agreement that would result in a Material Adverse Effect, (iii) conflict with or result in any breach or violation of or constitute a default under any order, writ, judgment or decree known to us to which the Company is a party or is subject that would result in a Material Adverse Effect, or (iv) to our knowledge, result in the creation or imposition of any lien, claim or encumbrance on any of the assets or properties of the Company that would result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

9.All the issued shares of capital stock (or analogous ownership interests, as applicable) of each Significant Subsidiary of the Company, except to the extent set forth in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, are owned by the Company directly or indirectly through one or more wholly-owned subsidiaries, free and clear of any claim, lien, encumbrance, security interest, restriction upon voting or transfer or any other claim of any third party.

 

10.To our knowledge, there is (i) no claim, action, suit, proceeding, arbitration, investigation or inquiry, pending or threatened, before any court or governmental or administrative body or agency, or any private arbitration tribunal, against the Company, or any of its officers, directors or employees (in connection with the discharge of their duties as officers, directors and employees), of the Company, or affecting any of its properties or assets of a character required to be described in the Registration Statement, Form 10-K, a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed by the Company after the Form 10-K, or a Current Report on Form 8-K filed by the Company after the Form 10-K, which is not so described, and (ii) no indenture, contract, lease, mortgage, deed of trust, note agreement, loan or other agreement or instrument of a character required to be filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement, which is not filed as required by the Securities Act and the rules thereunder.

 

11.In connection with the valid execution, delivery and performance by the Company of the Sales Agreement, or the offer, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares or the consummation of the transactions contemplated thereby, no consent, license, permit, waiver, approval or authorization of, or designation, declaration, registration or filing with, any governmental or regulatory authority, self-regulatory organization, or court is required, other than registration pursuant to the Securities Act and approval for listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange. As stated above, we do not express any opinion in this paragraph or otherwise as to any necessary qualification under the securities or Blue Sky laws of any state or as to the rules and regulations of FINRA as may be applicable in effecting the transactions contemplated by the Sales Agreement.

 

12.The Company is not, and after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in the Prospectus will not be, required to register as an Investment Company within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

 

13.The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus under the caption “Description of Capital Stock,” and the information included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus under the caption “Description of Capital Stock,” to the extent that it constitutes matters of law, summaries of legal matters, documents referred to therein or legal conclusions, has been reviewed by us and fairly summarizes the matters set forth therein in all material respects.

 

 

 

 

14.The Placement Shares to be issued and sold by the Company pursuant to the Sales Agreement are duly listed, and admitted and authorized for trading, subject to official notice of issuance, on the Exchange.

 

15.No person or entity has the right to require registration of shares of Common Stock or other securities of the Company because of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement, except for persons and entities who have expressly waived such right or who have been given proper notice and have failed to exercise such right within the time or times required under the terms and conditions of such right.

 

Form of Company Counsel Negative Assurance Letter

 

In the course of acting as counsel for the Company in connection with the preparation of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, we have participated in conferences with officers, auditors and other representatives of the Company during which the contents of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus were discussed (it being understood that while we represent the Company with respect to the offering of the Placement Shares and certain other matters, other counsel represent the Company with respect to other matters, including matters related to intellectual property). While the limitations inherent in the independent verification of factual matters and the character of determinations involved in the registration process are such that we are not passing upon and do not assume any responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or fairness of the statements contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (except as expressly and specifically set forth in our opinion letter to you dated the date hereof), subject to the foregoing and based on such participation and discussions, no facts have come to our attention that have caused us to believe that:

 

(i)          the Registration Statement filed with the Commission (No. 333[•]), which registers the sale of the Placement Shares, is not currently effective under the Securities Act;

 

(ii)         any required filing of the Prospectus pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act has not been made in the manner and within the time required by Rule 424(b);

 

(iii)        the Registration Statement, as of its latest effective date, including the information deemed to be a part of the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act (together with the documents incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement at that time), contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading; or

 

(iv)        the Prospectus, as of its date, or as of the date hereof, together with the documents incorporated by reference in the Prospectus at that time, contained or contains any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted or omits to state any material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 4.7

 

ALBIREO PHARMA, INC.

 

Issuer

 

AND

 

[                    ] Trustee

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of [                    ]

 

Senior Debt Securities

 

 

 

 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE (1)

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as Amended   Section of
Indenture
310(a).   7.09
310(b).  

7.08

   

7.10

310(c).   Inapplicable
311(a).   7.13(a)
311(b).   7.13(b)
311(c).   Inapplicable
312(a)   5.02(a)
312(b).   5.02(b)
312(c).   5.02(c)
313(a).   5.04(a)
313(b).   5.04(a)
313(c).  

5.04(a)

   

5.04(b)

313(d).   5.04(b)
314(a).   5.03
314(b).   Inapplicable
314(c).   13.06
314(d).   Inapplicable
314(e).   13.06
314(f).   Inapplicable
315(a).  

7.01(a)

   

7.02

315(b).   6.07
315(c).   7.01
315(d).  

7.01(b)

   

7.01(c)

315(e).   6.07
316(a).  

6.06

   

8.04

316(b).   6.04
316(c).   8.01
317(a).   6.02
317(b).   4.03
318(a).   13.08

 

 

(1) This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS (2)

 

  Page
   
ARTICLE I DEFINITIONS 1
   
SECTION 1.01 Definitions of Terms 1
     
ARTICLE II ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES 4
   
SECTION 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities 4
SECTION 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate 5
SECTION 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment 6
SECTION 2.04 Execution and Authentications 7
SECTION 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange 7
SECTION 2.06 Temporary Securities 8
SECTION 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities 9
SECTION 2.08 Cancellation 9
SECTION 2.09 Benefits of Indenture 9
SECTION 2.10 Authenticating Agent 9
SECTION 2.11 Global Securities 10
     
ARTICLE III REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS 11
   
SECTION 3.01 Redemption 11
SECTION 3.02 Notice of Redemption 11
SECTION 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption 12
SECTION 3.04 Sinking Fund 12
SECTION 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 12
SECTION 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 12
     
ARTICLE IV COVENANTS 13
   
SECTION 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest 13
SECTION 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency 13
SECTION 4.03 Paying Agents 13
SECTION 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee 14
SECTION 4.05 Compliance with Consolidation Provisions 14
     
ARTICLE V SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE 14
   
SECTION 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders 14
SECTION 5.02 Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders 14
SECTION 5.03 Reports by the Company 15
SECTION 5.04 Reports by the Trustee 15
     
ARTICLE VI REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT 15
   
SECTION 6.01 Events of Default 15
SECTION 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 17
SECTION 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected 18
SECTION 6.04 Limitation on Suits 18

 

 

 

 

SECTION 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver 19
SECTION 6.06 Control by Securityholders 19
SECTION 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs 20
     
ARTICLE VII CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE 20
   
SECTION 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee 20
SECTION 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee 21
SECTION 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities 22
SECTION 7.04 May Hold Securities 22
SECTION 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust 22
SECTION 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement 22
SECTION 7.07 Reliance on Officers’ Certificate 23
SECTION 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests 23
SECTION 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility 23
SECTION 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor 23
SECTION 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor 24
SECTION 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business 25
SECTION 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company 25
     
ARTICLE VIII CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS 26
   
SECTION 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders 26
SECTION 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders 26
SECTION 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners 26
SECTION 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded 26
SECTION 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders 27
SECTION 8.06 Purposes for Which Meetings May Be Called 27
SECTION 8.07 Call Notice and Place of Meetings 27
SECTION 8.08 Persons Entitled To Vote at Meetings 28
SECTION 8.09 Quorum; Action 28
SECTION 8.10 Determination of Voting Rights; Conduct and Adjournment of Meetings 28
SECTION 8.11 Counting Votes and Recording Action of Meetings 29
     
ARTICLE IX SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES 29
   
SECTION 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders 29
SECTION 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders 30
SECTION 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures 30
SECTION 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures 30
SECTION 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures 31
     
ARTICLE X SUCCESSOR ENTITY 31
   
SECTION 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc. 31
SECTION 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted 31
SECTION 10.03 Evidence of Consolidation, Etc. to Trustee 32
     
ARTICLE XI SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE 32
   
SECTION 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 32
SECTION 11.02 Discharge of Obligations 32
SECTION 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust 33
SECTION 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents 33
SECTION 11.05 Repayment to Company 33

 

 

 

 

ARTICLE XII IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS 33
   
SECTION 12.01 No Recourse 33
     
ARTICLE XIII MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 33
   
SECTION 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns 33
SECTION 13.02 Actions by Successor 34
SECTION 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers 34
SECTION 13.04 Notices 34
SECTION 13.05 Governing Law 34
SECTION 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt 34
SECTION 13.07 Compliance Certificates and Opinions 34
SECTION 13.08 Payments on Business Days 35
SECTION 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act 35
SECTION 13.10 Counterparts 35
SECTION 13.11 Separability 35
SECTION 13.12 Assignment 35

 

 

(2) This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms and provisions.

 

 

 

 

INDENTURE, dated as of [                           ], by and between Albireo Pharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [                           ], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

 

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

 

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

 

ARTICLE I

 

DEFINITIONS

 

SECTION 1.01  Definitions of Terms.

 

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

“Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed with respect to all or any series of the Securities by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

“Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

 

“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

 

“Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which Federal or State banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 

“Certificate” means a certificate signed by the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer or the principal accounting officer of the Company. The Certificate need not comply with the provisions of Section 13.07.

 

“Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

“Company” means the corporation named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor corporation shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor corporation.

 

1

 

 

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [                    ], except that whenever a provision herein refers to an office or agency of the Trustee in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, such office is located, at the date hereof, at [                         ].

 

“Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

“Default” means an event which is, or after notice or lapse of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.

 

“Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series, for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or Section 2.11.

 

“Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

 

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

“Global Security” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with this Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

“Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are non-callable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended) as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

“herein,” “hereof” and “hereunder,” and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof.

 

“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

 

“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by the President or a Vice President and by the Chief Financial Officer, Vice President of Finance, the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Controller or an Assistant Controller or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

2

 

 

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of counsel, who may be counsel to the Company (and may include directors or employees of the Company) and which opinion is acceptable to the Trustee which acceptance shall not be unreasonably withheld.

 

“Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as in Article III provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

 

“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint-venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, estate, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

“Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security.

 

“Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer of the Trustee, including any vice president, assistant vice president, secretary, assistant secretary, the treasurer, any assistant treasurer, the managing director or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of such officer’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

“Securities” means the debt Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

“Security Register” has the meaning specified in Section 2.05.

 

“Security Registrar” has the meaning specified in Section 2.05.

 

“Securityholder,” “holder of Securities,” “registered holder,” or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security shall be registered in the Security Register.

 

“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation at least a majority of whose outstanding Voting Stock shall at the time be owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person or by one or more of its Subsidiaries or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries, (ii) any general partnership, joint venture or similar entity, at least a majority of whose outstanding partnership or similar interests shall at the time be owned by such Person, or by one or more of its Subsidiaries, or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries and (iii) any limited partnership of which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a general partner.

 

“Trustee” means the Person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean such successor Trustee. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

 

“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, subject to the provisions of Sections 9.01, 9.02, and 10.01, as in effect at the date of execution of this instrument; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act is amended after such date, Trust Indenture Act means, to the extent required by such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as so amended, or any successor statute.

 

3

 

 

“Voting Stock,” as applied to any Person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such Person having ordinary voting power for the election of a majority of the directors (or the equivalent) of such Person, other than shares, interests, participations or other equivalents having such power only by reason of the occurrence of a contingency.

 

ARTICLE II

 

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION,
REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

 

SECTION 2.01  Designation and Terms of Securities.

 

(a) The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of a given series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

 

(1) the title of the Security of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities);

 

(2) the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series initially to be issued and any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

(3) the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;

 

(4) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable and the place(s) of payment;

 

(5) the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any;

 

(6) the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates, the place(s) of payment, and the record date for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

(7) the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods or to defer the payment of interest and the duration of such extension;

 

(8) the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

4

 

 

(9) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in satisfaction of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(10) whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

(11) the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the Certificate of Authentication for such series;

 

(12) if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

(13) any and all other terms with respect to such series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the terms of this Indenture, as amended by any supplemental indenture) including any terms which may be required by or advisable under United States laws or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

 

(14) whether the Securities are issuable as a Global Security and, in such case, the identity of the Depositary for such series;

 

(15) whether the Securities will be convertible into shares of common stock or other securities of the Company and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible, including the conversion price and the conversion period;

 

(16) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01; and

 

(17) any additional or different Events of Default or restrictive covenants provided for with respect to the Securities of the series.

 

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

 

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

 

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.