Use these links to rapidly review the document
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 6, 2019

Registration No. 333-             

 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549



FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933



Albireo Pharma, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)



Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  90-0136863
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South
Boston, Massachusetts 02109
(857) 254-5555

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant's principal executive offices)



Ronald H.W. Cooper
President and Chief Executive Officer
Albireo Pharma, Inc.
10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South
Boston, Massachusetts 02109
(857) 254-5555
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)



Copies to:

Megan N. Gates, Esq.

 

Jason G. Duncan, Esq.
John P. Condon, Esq.   General Counsel and Secretary
Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C.   Albireo Pharma, Inc.
One Financial Center   10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South
Boston, Massachusetts 02111   Boston, Massachusetts 02109
(617) 542-6000   (857) 254-5555



Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement as determined by the registrant.

             If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box:    o

             If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box:    ý

             If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

             If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

             If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.    o

             If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.    o

             Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer o   Accelerated filer ý   Non-accelerated filer o   Smaller reporting company ý

Emerging growth company o

             If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.    o



CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

               
 
Title of Each Class of Securities
to be Registered

  Amount to be
Registered

  Proposed Maximum
Offering Price per
Unit

  Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering
Price

  Amount of
Registration Fee(1)

 

Common Stock, $0.01 par value

  (2)   (3)   (3)  
 

Preferred Stock, $0.01 par value

  (2)   (3)   (3)  
 

Debt Securities

  (2)   (3)   (3)  
 

Warrants

  (2)   (3)   (3)  
 

Rights

  (2)   (3)   (3)  
 

Units

  (2)   (3)   (3)  
 

Total

  (2)       $200,000,000   $21,181.09(4)

 

(1)
Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, based on the proposed maximum aggregate offering price.
(2)
There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities, such indeterminate number of warrants and rights to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, and such indeterminate number of units, as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $200,000,000. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering price of such debt securities shall be in such greater principal amount as shall result in an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $200,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all securities previously issued hereunder. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. The proposed maximum initial offering price per unit will be determined, from time to time, by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder. The securities registered also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock or preferred stock and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or rights or pursuant to the anti-dilution provisions of any such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock or preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.
(3)
The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
(4)
Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement includes a total of $25,238,533 of unsold securities that had previously been registered under the Registrant's registration statement on Form S-3 initially filed on October 13, 2017 and amended on November 16, 2017, File No. 333-220958 (the "Prior Registration Statement"). The Prior Registration Statement registered securities for a maximum offering price of $125,000,000. The Registrant sold an aggregate of $99,761,467 of securities thereunder, leaving a balance of unsold securities with an aggregate offering price of $25,238,533. In connection with the registration of such unsold securities on the Prior Registration Statement, the Registrant paid a registration fee of $3,142 for such unsold securities, which fee will continue to be applied to such unsold securities. Accordingly, the amount of the registration fee has been calculated based on the proposed maximum offering price of the additional $174,761,467 of securities registered on this registration statement. Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6), the offering of the unsold securities registered under the Prior Registration Statement will be deemed terminated as of the date of effectiveness of this registration statement.



             THE REGISTRANT HEREBY AMENDS THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON SUCH DATE OR DATES AS MAY BE NECESSARY TO DELAY ITS EFFECTIVE DATE UNTIL THE REGISTRANT SHALL FILE A FURTHER AMENDMENT WHICH SPECIFICALLY STATES THAT THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL THEREAFTER BECOME EFFECTIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 8(a) OF THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, AS AMENDED, OR UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL BECOME EFFECTIVE ON SUCH DATE AS THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, ACTING PURSUANT TO SAID SECTION 8(a), MAY DETERMINE.

   


Table of Contents


EXPLANATORY NOTE

        This registration statement contains:

        The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The $50,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $200,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus.


Table of Contents

THE INFORMATION IN THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT COMPLETE AND MAY BE CHANGED. WE MAY NOT SELL THESE SECURITIES UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FILED WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION IS EFFECTIVE. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL THESE SECURITIES AND IS NOT SOLICITING AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY STATE WHERE THE OFFER OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

PROSPECTUS   SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MARCH 6, 2019

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

$200,000,000
COMMON STOCK
PREFERRED STOCK
DEBT SECURITIES
WARRANTS
RIGHTS
UNITS


This prospectus will allow us to issue, from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined at or prior to the time of the offering, up to $200,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus, either individually or in units. We may also offer: common stock or preferred stock upon conversion of or exchange for the debt securities; common stock upon conversion of or exchange for the preferred stock; or common stock, preferred stock or debt securities upon the exercise of warrants or rights.

This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide you with the specific terms of any offering in one or more supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, as well as any documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, carefully before you invest.

Our securities may be sold directly by us to you, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled "Plan of Distribution" in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any underwriters or agents are involved in the sale of our securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such underwriters or agents and any applicable fees, commissions or discounts and over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds that we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol "ALBO." On March 5, 2019, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $30.79 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market or any securities market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. Prospective purchasers of our securities are urged to obtain current information as to the market prices of our securities, where applicable.


Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks that we have described on page 3 of this prospectus under the caption "Risk Factors." We may also include specific risk factors in supplements to this prospectus under the caption "Risk Factors." This prospectus may not be used to sell our securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

   

The date of this prospectus is                           .


Table of Contents


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
  Page
 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

    i  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

    1  

RISK FACTORS

    3  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

    4  

USE OF PROCEEDS

    7  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

    8  

DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

    10  

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

    11  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

    13  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

    20  

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

    21  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

    23  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF DELAWARE LAW AND OF THE COMPANY'S CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS

    25  

LEGAL MATTERS

    28  

EXPERTS

    28  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

    28  

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

    29  

Table of Contents


ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

        This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a "shelf" registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may offer shares of our common stock or preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants or rights to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in units, in one or more offerings, with a total value of up to $200,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering.

        This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. However, no prospectus supplement will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, includes all material information relating to the offering of securities under this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement, the information and documents incorporated herein by reference and the additional information under the headings "Where You Can Find More Information" and "Incorporation of Documents by Reference" before making an investment decision.

        You should rely only on the information we have provided or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information or representation. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information we have incorporated herein by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of a security.

        We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

        This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of our securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement. To the extent there are inconsistencies between any prospectus supplement, this prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference, the document with the most recent date will control.

        Unless the context otherwise requires, "the Company," "we," "us," "our" and similar terms refer to Albireo Pharma, Inc. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries.

i


Table of Contents

 


PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

        The following is a summary of what we believe to be the most important aspects of our business and the offering of our securities under this prospectus. We urge you to read this entire prospectus, including the more detailed consolidated financial statements, notes to the consolidated financial statements and other information incorporated by reference from our other filings with the SEC or included in any applicable prospectus supplement. Investing in our securities involves risks. Please carefully consider the risk factors set forth in any prospectus supplements and in our most recent annual and quarterly filings with the SEC, as well as other information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplements and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, before purchasing our securities. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities.

About Albireo Pharma, Inc.

        We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of novel bile acid modulators to treat orphan pediatric liver diseases and other liver or gastrointestinal, or GI, diseases and disorders. The initial target indication for our lead product candidate, A4250, is progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, or PFIC, a rare, life-threatening genetic disorder affecting young children for which there is currently no approved drug treatment. We completed a Phase 2 clinical trial of A4250 in children with chronic cholestasis and pruritus, and in May 2018 we enrolled the first patient in our Phase 3 clinical trial for A4250 in patients with PFIC, which we refer to as PEDFIC 1. In addition to PFIC, we plan to initiate a pivotal clinical trial for A4250 in biliary atresia, which we believe to be one of the most common rare pediatric liver diseases, in the second half of 2019. We also plan to conduct clinical development of A4250 in 2020 as a treatment for one or more other pediatric cholestatic liver diseases and disorders. Our most advanced product candidates in addition to A4250 include elobixibat, which is approved in Japan for the treatment of chronic constipation and with which we anticipate initiating a global Phase 2 clinical trial of as a treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH, in the second quarter of 2019, and A3384, which is a product candidate to treat bile acid malabsorption, or BAM. In June 2018, the Company was granted a patent for a method of using elobixibat to treat NASH in both the U.S. and Europe. We also have a preclinical program in NASH.

Additional Information

        For additional information related to our business and operations, please refer to the reports incorporated herein by reference, including the Annual Report on Form 10-K of Albireo Pharma, Inc. for the year ended December 31, 2018, as described under the caption "Incorporation of Documents by Reference" on page 29 of this prospectus.

Our Corporate Information

        On November 3, 2016, Biodel Inc., or Biodel, completed its business combination with Albireo Limited in accordance with the terms of the Amended and Restated Share Exchange Agreement, dated as of July 13, 2016, or the Exchange Agreement, by and among Biodel, Albireo Limited and the shareholders and noteholders of Albireo Limited. Pursuant to the Exchange Agreement, each holder of Albireo Limited shares or notes convertible into Albireo Limited shares received newly issued shares of Biodel common stock, and Albireo Limited became a wholly owned subsidiary of Biodel. We refer to this exchange as the Transaction. Also on November 3, 2016, in connection with, and prior to completion of, the Transaction, Biodel effected a 1-for-30 reverse stock split of its common stock, which we refer to as the Reverse Stock Split, and, following the completion of the

1


Table of Contents

Transaction, changed its name to Albireo Pharma, Inc. As used herein, the words the "Company," "we," "us," "our" and similar terms refer to Albireo Pharma, Inc. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries. In addition, the word "Biodel" refers to the Company prior to November 3, 2016.

        Our corporate headquarters are located at 10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South, Boston, Massachusetts 02109, and our telephone number is (857) 254-5555. We maintain a website at www.albireopharma.com, to which we regularly post copies of our press releases as well as additional information about us. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

        All brand names or trademarks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective holders. Use or display by us of other parties' trademarks, trade dress, or products in this prospectus is not intended to, and does not, imply a relationship with, or endorsements or sponsorship of, us by the trademark or trade dress owners.

Offerings under this Prospectus

        Under this prospectus, we may offer shares of our common stock or preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants or rights to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in units, with a total value of up to $200,000,000, from time to time at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

    §
    designation or classification;
    §
    aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;
    §
    maturity, if applicable;
    §
    rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;
    §
    redemption, conversion or sinking fund terms, if any;
    §
    voting or other rights, if any; and
    §
    conversion or exercise prices, if any.

        The prospectus supplement also may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.

        We may sell the securities directly to investors or to or through agents, underwriters or dealers. We, and our agents or underwriters, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we offer securities through agents or underwriters, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

    §
    the names of those agents or underwriters;
    §
    applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;
    §
    details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and
    §
    the net proceeds to us.

        This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

2


Table of Contents


RISK FACTORS

        Investing in our securities involves significant risk. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of our securities will contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in the Company. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading "Risk Factors" in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under the heading "Risk Factors" included in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or our subsequent current reports on Form 8-K that we have filed with the SEC, all of which are incorporated herein by reference, and which may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.

3


Table of Contents


SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

        This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that relate to future events or to our future operations or financial performance. Any forward-looking statement involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statement. Our forward-looking statements include statements, other than statements of historical fact, about, among other things:

        Words such as, but not limited to, "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "estimate," "forecast," "intend," "may," "plan," "potential," "predict," "project," "targets," "likely," "will," "would," "could," "should," "continue," "scheduled" and similar expressions or phrases, or the negative of those expressions or phrases, are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, we caution you that these statements are based on our projections of the future that are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement to differ materially from those expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement. Some of these risks, uncertainties and other factors include our critical accounting policies and:

4


Table of Contents

5


Table of Contents

        These and other risks and uncertainties are described in greater detail under the caption "Risk Factors" in this prospectus, as updated and supplemented by the discussion of risks and uncertainties under "Risk Factors" contained in any supplements to this prospectus, or in the sections entitled "Business," "Risk Factors," "Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" or "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or our subsequent current reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments thereto, as filed with the SEC and which are incorporated herein by reference. As a result of the risks and uncertainties, the results or events indicated by the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus or in any document incorporated herein by reference may not occur.

        Investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement. Each forward-looking statement represents our views only as of the date of this prospectus or the date of the document incorporated by reference in this prospectus and should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments may cause our views to change. We expressly disclaim any obligation to update or alter any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make. All subsequent forward-looking statements attributable to us or to any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section.

6


Table of Contents


USE OF PROCEEDS

        Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use any net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for our operations and our further development and potential commercialization of either or both of our product candidates A4250, elobixibat, and A3384, as well as the development of other product candidates, and other general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, working capital, intellectual property protection and enforcement, capital expenditures, repayment of any existing indebtedness, investments, acquisitions and collaborations. We have not determined the amounts we plan to spend on any of the areas listed above or the timing of these expenditures. As a result, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds, if any, we receive in connection with securities offered pursuant to this prospectus for any purpose. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we may initially invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities or apply them to the reduction of short-term indebtedness.

7


Table of Contents


PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

        We may offer securities under this prospectus from time to time pursuant to public offerings through one or more placement agents or underwriters, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities (1) through underwriters or dealers, (2) through agents or (3) directly to one or more purchasers, or through a combination of such methods. We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at:

        We may directly solicit offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus. We may also designate agents to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time, and may enter into arrangements for "at-the-market," equity line or similar transactions. We will name in a prospectus supplement any underwriter or agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities.

        If we utilize a dealer in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.

        If we utilize an underwriter in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, we will execute an underwriting agreement with the underwriter at the time of sale, and we will provide the name of any underwriter in the prospectus supplement which the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we, or the purchasers of the securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and the underwriter may compensate those dealers in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions.

        With respect to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions and block trades, we will provide in the applicable prospectus supplement information regarding any compensation we pay to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof.

        If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters, dealers or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in each applicable prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in each applicable prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other

8


Table of Contents

institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

        One or more firms, referred to as "remarketing firms," may also offer or sell the securities, if a prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with a remarketing arrangement upon their purchase. Remarketing firms will act as principals for their own accounts or as our agents. These remarketing firms will offer or sell the securities in accordance with the terms of the securities. Each prospectus supplement will identify and describe any remarketing firm and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and will describe the remarketing firm's compensation. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with the securities they remarket. Remarketing firms may be entitled under agreements that may be entered into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

        Certain underwriters may use this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement for offers and sales related to market-making transactions in the securities. These underwriters may act as principal or agent in these transactions, and the sales will be made at prices related to prevailing market prices at the time of sale. Any underwriters involved in the sale of the securities may qualify as "underwriters" within the meaning of Section 2(a)(11) of the Securities Act. In addition, the underwriters' commissions, discounts or concessions may qualify as underwriters' compensation under the Securities Act and the rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc., or FINRA.

        Shares of our common stock sold pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part will be authorized for listing and trading on The Nasdaq Capital Market. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing, if any, on The Nasdaq Capital Market or any securities market or other securities exchange of the securities covered by the prospectus supplement. Underwriters may make a market in our common stock, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence, development or maintenance of trading markets for any of the securities.

        In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than we sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing the applicable security in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if the securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.

        The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in other transactions with us, or perform other services for us, in the ordinary course of their business.

9


Table of Contents


DESCRIPTION OF COMMON STOCK

        We are authorized to issue 30,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share. On December 31, 2018, we had approximately 11,929,928 shares of common stock outstanding and approximately 28 stockholders of record.

        The following summary of certain provisions of our common stock does not purport to be complete. You should refer to the section of this prospectus entitled "Certain Provisions of Delaware Law and of the Company's Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws" and our restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, which we refer to as our restated certificate of incorporation, and our amended and restated bylaws, which we refer to as our restated bylaws, both of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law.

General

        Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future. All shares of common stock outstanding as of the date of this prospectus and, upon issuance and sale, all shares of common stock that we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, will be fully paid and nonassessable.

        In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately our net assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. Our outstanding shares of common stock are validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

        The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, with offices at 1 State Street, 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004.

Stock Exchange Listing

        Our common stock is listed for quotation on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol "ALBO."

10


Table of Contents


DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED STOCK

        We are authorized to issue 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. As of the date of this prospectus, no shares of our preferred stock were outstanding. The following summary of certain provisions of our preferred stock does not purport to be complete. You should refer to our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, both of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law.

General

        Our board of directors may, without further action by our stockholders, from time to time, direct the issuance of shares of preferred stock in series and may, at the time of issuance, determine the rights, preferences and limitations of each series, including voting rights, dividend rights and redemption and liquidation preferences. Satisfaction of any dividend preferences of outstanding shares of preferred stock would reduce the amount of funds available for the payment of dividends on shares of our common stock. Holders of shares of preferred stock may be entitled to receive a preference payment in the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our company before any payment is made to the holders of shares of our common stock. In some circumstances, the issuance of shares of preferred stock may render more difficult or tend to discourage a merger, tender offer or proxy contest, the assumption of control by a holder of a large block of our securities or the removal of incumbent management. Upon the affirmative vote of our board of directors, without stockholder approval, we may issue shares of preferred stock with voting and conversion rights which could adversely affect the holders of shares of our common stock.

        If we offer a specific series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will describe the terms of the preferred stock in the prospectus supplement for such offering and will file a copy of the certificate establishing the terms of the preferred stock with the SEC. To the extent required, this description will include:

11


Table of Contents

Transfer Agent and Registrar

        The transfer agent and registrar for our preferred stock will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

12


Table of Contents


DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

        The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any future debt securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we so indicate in a prospectus supplement, the terms of any debt securities offered under such prospectus supplement may differ from the terms we describe below, and to the extent the terms set forth in a prospectus supplement differ from the terms described below, the terms set forth in the prospectus supplement shall control.

        We may sell from time to time, in one or more offerings under this prospectus, debt securities, which may be senior or subordinated. We will issue any such senior debt securities under a senior indenture that we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the senior indenture. We will issue any such subordinated debt securities under a subordinated indenture, which we will enter into with a trustee to be named in the subordinated indenture. We have filed forms of these documents as exhibits to the registration statement, of which this prospectus is a part. We use the term "indentures" to refer to either the senior indenture or the subordinated indenture, as applicable. The indentures will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, or the Trust Indenture Act, as in effect on the date of the indenture. We use the term "debenture trustee" to refer to either the trustee under the senior indenture or the trustee under the subordinated indenture, as applicable.

        The following summaries of material provisions of the senior debt securities, the subordinated debt securities and the indentures are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities.

General

        Each indenture provides that debt securities may be issued from time to time in one or more series and may be denominated and payable in foreign currencies or units based on or relating to foreign currencies. Neither the senior indenture nor any subordinated indenture limits the amount of debt securities that may be issued thereunder, and each indenture provides that the specific terms of any series of debt securities shall be set forth in, or determined pursuant to, an authorizing resolution or a supplemental indenture, if any, relating to such series.

        We will describe in each prospectus supplement the following terms relating to a series of debt securities:

13


Table of Contents

        We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Conversion or Exchange Rights

        We will set forth in the prospectus supplement the terms, if any, on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.

Consolidation, Merger or Sale; No Protection in Event of a Change of Control or Highly Leveraged Transaction

        The indentures do not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets must assume all of our obligations under the indentures or the debt securities, as appropriate.

        Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change of control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change of control), which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

14


Table of Contents

Events of Default Under the Indenture

        The following are events of default under the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

        No event of default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an event of default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of an event of default may constitute an event of default under any bank credit agreements we may have in existence from time to time. In addition, the occurrence of certain events of default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our other indebtedness outstanding from time to time.

        If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the debenture trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) of and premium and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. Before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained with respect to debt securities of any series, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may rescind and annul the acceleration if all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the applicable indenture (including payments or deposits in respect of principal, premium or interest that had become due other than as a result of such acceleration). We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an event of default.

        Subject to the terms of the indentures, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the debenture trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the debenture trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to

15


Table of Contents

the debenture trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the debenture trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

        A holder of the debt securities of any series will only have the right to institute a proceeding under the indentures or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies if:

        These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.

        We will periodically file statements with the applicable debenture trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the applicable indenture.

Modification of Indenture; Waiver

        The debenture trustee and we may change the applicable indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters, including:

        In addition, under the indentures, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the debenture trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) that is affected. However, the debenture trustee and we may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

16


Table of Contents

        Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series (or, at a meeting of holders of such series at which a quorum is present, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of such series represented at such meeting) may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series or in respect of a covenant or provision, which cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security of the series affected; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

Discharge

        Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for obligations to:

        In order to exercise our rights to be discharged with respect to a series, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, the premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.

Form, Exchange, and Transfer

        We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indentures provide that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company or another depositary named by us and identified in a prospectus supplement with respect to that series.

        At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.

        Subject to the terms of the indentures and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless

17


Table of Contents

otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange or in the applicable indenture, we will make no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.

        We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.

        If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

Information Concerning the Debenture Trustee

        The debenture trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under the applicable indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the debenture trustee under such indenture must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the debenture trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indentures at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.

Payment and Paying Agents

        Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.

        We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that, unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check which we will mail to the holder. Unless we otherwise indicate in a prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the debenture trustee in the City of New York as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.

        All money we pay to a paying agent or the debenture trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities which remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.

18


Table of Contents

Governing Law

        The indentures and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.

Subordination of Subordinated Debt Securities

        Our obligations pursuant to any subordinated debt securities will be unsecured and will be subordinate and junior in priority of payment to certain of our other indebtedness to the extent described in a prospectus supplement. The subordinated indenture does not limit the amount of senior indebtedness we may incur. It also does not limit us from issuing any other secured or unsecured debt.

19


Table of Contents


DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

General

        We may issue warrants to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock or debt securities in one or more series together with other securities or separately, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Below is a description of certain general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer. Particular terms of the warrants will be described in the warrant agreements and the prospectus supplement relating to the warrants.

        The applicable prospectus supplement will contain, where applicable, the following terms of and other information relating to the warrants:

        As of December 31, 2018, we had no warrants outstanding.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

        The transfer agent and registrar for any warrants will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

20


Table of Contents


DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

General

        We may issue rights to our stockholders to purchase shares of our common stock, preferred stock or the other securities described in this prospectus. We may offer rights separately or together with one or more additional rights, debt securities, preferred stock, common stock or warrants, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of the series of certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights. The following description sets forth certain general terms and provisions of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate. The particular terms of the rights to which any prospectus supplement may relate and the extent, if any, to which the general provisions may apply to the rights so offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. To the extent that any particular terms of the rights, rights agreement or rights certificates described in a prospectus supplement differ from any of the terms described below, then the terms described below will be deemed to have been superseded by that prospectus supplement. We encourage you to read the applicable rights agreement and rights certificate for additional information before you decide whether to purchase any of our rights.

        We will provide in a prospectus supplement the following terms of the rights being issued:

        Each right will entitle the holder of rights to purchase for cash the principal amount of shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities at the exercise price provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Rights may be exercised at any time up to the close of business on the expiration date for the rights provided in the applicable prospectus supplement.

        Holders may exercise rights as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Upon receipt of payment and the rights certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the rights agent or any other office indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will, as soon

21


Table of Contents

as practicable, forward the shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities, as applicable, purchasable upon exercise of the rights. If less than all of the rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than stockholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Rights Agent

        The rights agent for any rights we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

22


Table of Contents


DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

        The following description, together with the additional information that we include in any applicable prospectus supplements summarizes the material terms and provisions of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any units that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of units in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any units offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.

        We will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of unit agreement that describes the terms of the series of units we are offering, and any supplemental agreements, before the issuance of the related series of units. The following summaries of material terms and provisions of the units are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the unit agreement and any supplemental agreements applicable to a particular series of units. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of units that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses and the complete unit agreement and any supplemental agreements that contain the terms of the units.

General

        We may issue units consisting of common stock, preferred stock, one or more debt securities, warrants or rights for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock or debt securities in one or more series, in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each security included in the unit. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.

        We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of units being offered, including:

        The provisions described in this section, as well as those set forth in any prospectus supplement or as described under "Description of Common Stock," "Description of Preferred Stock," "Description of Debt Securities," "Description of Warrants," and "Description of Rights" will apply to each unit, as applicable, and to any common stock, preferred stock, debt security, warrant or right included in each unit, as applicable.

Unit Agent

        The name and address of the unit agent for any units we offer will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

23


Table of Contents

Issuance in Series

        We may issue units in such amounts and in such numerous distinct series as we determine.

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units

        Each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit may, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.

24


Table of Contents

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF DELAWARE LAW AND OF THE COMPANY'S CERTIFICATE OF
INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS

Anti-Takeover Provisions

        The provisions of Delaware law and our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws could discourage or make it more difficult to accomplish a proxy contest or other change in our management or the acquisition of control by a holder of a substantial amount of our voting stock. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish, or could deter, transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interests or in our best interests. These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continuity and stability in the composition of our board of directors and in the policies formulated by the board of directors and to discourage certain types of transactions that may involve an actual or threatened change of our control. These provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. Such provisions also may have the effect of preventing changes in our management.

        We are subject to the anti-takeover provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Section 203 prohibits a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging in a "business combination" with an "interested stockholder" for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is, or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder was, approved in a prescribed manner or another prescribed exception applies. For purposes of Section 203, a "business combination" is defined broadly to include a merger, asset sale or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder, and, subject to certain exceptions, an "interested stockholder" is a person who, together with his or her affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years prior, did own, 15% or more of the corporation's voting stock.

        Pursuant to our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws, our board of directors is divided into three classes, with the term of office of each class to expire at the third annual meeting of stockholders following election. At each annual meeting of stockholders, directors elected to succeed those directors whose terms expire, other than directors elected by the holders of any series of preferred stock under specified circumstances, will be elected for a three-year term of office. All directors elected to our classified board of directors will serve until the election and qualification of their respective successors or their earlier death, resignation or removal. Members of the board of directors may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of our then outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class. These provisions are likely to increase the time required for stockholders to change the composition of the board of directors. For example, at least two annual meetings will be necessary for stockholders to effect a change in a majority of the members of the board of directors.

        Our restated bylaws provide that, for nominations to the board of directors or for other business to be properly brought by a stockholder before a meeting of stockholders, the stockholder must first have given timely notice of the proposal in writing to our Secretary. For an annual meeting, a stockholder's notice generally must be delivered not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary of the previous year's annual meeting date. For a special meeting, the notice must generally be delivered not earlier than the 120th day prior to the meeting and not later than the

25


Table of Contents

later of (1) the 90th day prior to the meeting or (2) the 10th day following the day on which public announcement of the meeting is first made. Detailed requirements as to the form of the notice and information required in the notice are specified in the restated bylaws. If it is determined that business was not properly brought before a meeting in accordance with our bylaw provisions, such business will not be conducted at the meeting.

        Special meetings of the stockholders may be called only by the chairman of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer, our President or our board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors.

        Any action to be effected by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of the stockholders.

        The Delaware General Corporation Law provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation's certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless the corporation's certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, require a greater percentage. Our restated certificate of incorporation requires the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the voting power of all of our outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, to amend or repeal any of the provisions discussed in this section of this prospectus. This 75% stockholder vote would be in addition to any separate class vote that might in the future be required pursuant to the terms of any preferred stock that might then be outstanding. A 75% vote is also required for any amendment to, or repeal of, our restated bylaws by the stockholders. Our restated bylaws may be amended or repealed by vote of a majority of the authorized number of directors.

Limitation of Liability and Indemnification

        Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws provide that we shall indemnify our directors and executive officers to the fullest extent not prohibited by the Delaware General Corporation Law or any other applicable law, except that we are not required to indemnify any director or executive officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized by our board of directors, (iii) we provide such indemnification, in our sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in us under the Delaware General Corporation Law or any other applicable law, or (iv) such indemnification is required to be made under the enforcement provisions of our restated bylaws.

        Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law permits a corporation to indemnify any director or officer of the corporation against expenses (including attorneys' fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with any action, suit or proceeding brought by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the corporation, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner that he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, if he or she had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. In a derivative action (i.e., one brought by or on behalf of the corporation), indemnification may be provided only for expenses actually and reasonably incurred by any director or officer in connection with the defense or settlement of such an action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner that he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of

26


Table of Contents

the corporation, except that no indemnification shall be provided if such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation, unless and only to the extent that the Delaware Chancery Court or the court in which the action or suit was brought shall determine that such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses despite such adjudication of liability.

        Pursuant to Section 102(b)(7) of the Delaware General Corporation Law, Article Sixth of our restated certificate of incorporation eliminates the liability of a director to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for such a breach of fiduciary duty as a director to the fullest extent under applicable law, which does not include liabilities arising:

        We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers, in addition to the indemnification provided in our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, and intend to enter into indemnification agreements with any new directors and executive officers in the future. We have purchased and intend to maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer against any loss arising from any claim asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, subject to certain exclusions.

        The foregoing discussion of our restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements and Delaware law is not intended to be exhaustive and is qualified in its entirety by such restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements or law.

        Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

27


Table of Contents

LEGAL MATTERS

        Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., Boston, Massachusetts, will pass upon the validity of the issuance of the securities to be offered by this prospectus.

EXPERTS

        The consolidated financial statements of Albireo Pharma, Inc. appearing in Albireo Pharma, Inc.'s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2018, and the effectiveness of Albireo Pharma, Inc.'s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in its reports thereon, which conclude, among other things, that Albireo Pharma, Inc. did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework), because of the effects of the material weaknesses described therein, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such financial statements have been incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

        We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. SEC filings are available at the SEC's web site at http://www.sec.gov.

        This prospectus is only part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act, and therefore omits certain information contained in the registration statement. We have also filed exhibits and schedules with the registration statement that are excluded from this prospectus, and you should refer to the applicable exhibit or schedule for a complete description of any statement referring to any contract or other document. We also maintain a website at www.albireopharma.com, through which you can access our SEC filings. The information set forth on our website is not part of this prospectus.

28


Table of Contents

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

        The SEC allows us to "incorporate by reference" information that we file with them. Incorporation by reference allows us to disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We filed a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with the SEC with respect to the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. This prospectus omits certain information contained in the registration statement, as permitted by the SEC. You should refer to the registration statement, including the exhibits, for further information about us and the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. Statements in this prospectus regarding the provisions of certain documents filed with, or incorporated by reference in, the registration statement are not necessarily complete and each statement is qualified in all respects by that reference. Copies of all or any part of the registration statement, including the documents incorporated by reference or the exhibits, are available at the SEC's web site at http://www.sec.gov. The documents we are incorporating by reference are:

        The SEC file number for each of the documents listed above is 001-33451.

        In addition, all reports and other documents filed by us pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

        Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

        You may request, orally or in writing, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated herein by reference. These documents will be provided to you at no cost, by contacting:

Albireo Pharma, Inc.
10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South
Boston, Massachusetts 02109
(857) 254-5555

29


Table of Contents

        You may also access these documents on our website, http://www.albireopharma.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

        You should rely only on information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We are not making offers to sell the securities in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.

30


Table of Contents

THE INFORMATION IN THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT COMPLETE AND MAY BE CHANGED. WE MAY NOT SELL THESE SECURITIES UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT FILED WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION IS EFFECTIVE. THIS PROSPECTUS IS NOT AN OFFER TO SELL THESE SECURITIES AND IS NOT SOLICITING AN OFFER TO BUY THESE SECURITIES IN ANY STATE WHERE THE OFFER OR SALE IS NOT PERMITTED.

PROSPECTUS   SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MARCH 6, 2019

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

$50,000,000

Common Stock


We have entered into a Sales Agreement, or sales agreement, with Cowen and Company, LLC, or Cowen, dated March 6, 2019, relating to the sale of shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, under this prospectus we may offer and sell shares of our common stock, $0.01 par value per share, having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time through Cowen, acting as our agent.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made by any method permitted that is deemed an "at the market offering" as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through The Nasdaq Capital Market or any other existing trading market for our common stock. Cowen is not required to sell any specific amount, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Cowen will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate of 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold under the sales agreement. See "Plan of Distribution" beginning on page SA-18 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to Cowen. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an "underwriter" within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol "ALBO." On March 5, 2019, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $30.79 per share.


Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should consider carefully the risks that we have described on page SA-5 of this prospectus under the caption "Risk Factors" and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.


Cowen

   

The date of this prospectus is                                        , 2019


Table of Contents


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
  Page
 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

    SA-1  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

    SA-2  

THE OFFERING

    SA-4  

RISK FACTORS

    SA-5  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

    SA-7  

USE OF PROCEEDS

    SA-10  

DIVIDEND POLICY

    SA-10  

DILUTION

    SA-11  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

    SA-13  

CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF DELAWARE LAW AND OF THE COMPANY'S CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS

    SA-15  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

    SA-18  

LEGAL MATTERS

    SA-20  

EXPERTS

    SA-20  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

    SA-20  

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

    SA-21  

Table of Contents


ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

        This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a "shelf" registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the offering.

        This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits. This prospectus, together with the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, includes all material information relating to the offering of securities under this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the information and documents incorporated herein by reference and the additional information under the headings "Where You Can Find More Information" and "Incorporation of Documents by Reference" before making an investment decision.

        You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have not, and Cowen has not, authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information or representation. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares of our common stock offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information we have incorporated herein by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of a security.

        We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

        To the extent there are inconsistencies between this prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference, the document with the most recent date will control.

        Unless the context otherwise requires, "the Company," "we," "us," "our" and similar terms refer to Albireo Pharma, Inc. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries.

SA-1


Table of Contents


PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

        The following is a summary of what we believe to be the most important aspects of our business and the offering of our securities under this prospectus. We urge you to read this entire prospectus, including the more detailed consolidated financial statements, notes to the consolidated financial statements and other information incorporated by reference from our other filings with the SEC. Investing in our securities involves risks. Please carefully consider the risk factors set forth in our most recent annual and quarterly filings with the SEC, as well as other information in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein or therein, before purchasing our securities. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities.

About Albireo Pharma, Inc.

        We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of novel bile acid modulators to treat orphan pediatric liver diseases and other liver or gastrointestinal, or GI, diseases and disorders. The initial target indication for our lead product candidate, A4250, is progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, or PFIC, a rare, life-threatening genetic disorder affecting young children for which there is currently no approved drug treatment. We completed a Phase 2 clinical trial of A4250 in children with chronic cholestasis and pruritus, and in May 2018 we enrolled the first patient in our Phase 3 clinical trial for A4250 in patients with PFIC, which we refer to as PEDFIC 1. In addition to PFIC, we plan to initiate a pivotal clinical trial for A4250 in biliary atresia, which we believe to be one of the most common rare pediatric liver diseases, in the second half of 2019. We also plan to conduct clinical development of A4250 in 2020 as a treatment for one or more other pediatric cholestatic liver diseases and disorders. Our most advanced product candidates in addition to A4250 include elobixibat, which is approved in Japan for the treatment of chronic constipation and with which we anticipate initiating a global Phase 2 clinical trial of as a treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH, in the second quarter of 2019, and A3384, which is a product candidate to treat bile acid malabsorption, or BAM. In June 2018, the Company was granted a patent for a method of using elobixibat to treat NASH in both the U.S. and Europe. We also have a preclinical program in NASH.

Additional Information

        For additional information related to our business and operations, please refer to the reports incorporated herein by reference, including the Annual Report on Form 10-K of Albireo Pharma, Inc. for the year ended December 31, 2018, as described under the caption "Incorporation of Documents by Reference" on page SA-21 of this prospectus.

Our Corporate Information

        On November 3, 2016, Biodel Inc., or Biodel, completed its business combination with Albireo Limited in accordance with the terms of the Amended and Restated Share Exchange Agreement, dated as of July 13, 2016, or the Exchange Agreement, by and among Biodel, Albireo Limited and the shareholders and noteholders of Albireo Limited. Pursuant to the Exchange Agreement, each holder of Albireo Limited shares or notes convertible into Albireo Limited shares received newly issued shares of Biodel common stock, and Albireo Limited became a wholly owned subsidiary of Biodel. We refer to this exchange as the Transaction. Also on November 3, 2016, in connection with, and prior to completion of, the Transaction, Biodel effected a 1-for-30 reverse stock split of its common stock, which we refer to as the Reverse Stock Split, and, following the completion of the Transaction, changed its name to Albireo Pharma, Inc. As used herein, the words the "Company,"

SA-2


Table of Contents

"we," "us," "our" and similar terms refer to Albireo Pharma, Inc. and its direct and indirect subsidiaries. In addition, the word "Biodel" refers to the Company prior to November 3, 2016.

        Our corporate headquarters are located at 10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South, Boston, Massachusetts 02109, and our telephone number is (857) 254-5555. We maintain a website at www.albireopharma.com, to which we regularly post copies of our press releases as well as additional information about us. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

        All brand names or trademarks appearing in this prospectus are the property of their respective holders. Use or display by us of other parties' trademarks, trade dress, or products in this prospectus is not intended to, and does not, imply a relationship with, or endorsements or sponsorship of, us by the trademark or trade dress owners.

SA-3


Table of Contents


THE OFFERING

Common stock offered by us   Shares of our common having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000.

Manner of offering

 

"At the market" offering that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Cowen and Company, LLC. See "Plan of Distribution" on page SA-18 of this prospectus.

Use of proceeds

 

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for our operations and our further development and potential commercialization of our product candidates A4250, elobixibat, and A3384, as well as the development of other product candidates, and other general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, working capital, intellectual property protection and enforcement, capital expenditures, repayment of any existing indebtedness, investments, acquisitions and collaborations. See the section entitled "Use of Proceeds" on page SA-10 of this prospectus.

Risk factors

 

See "Risk Factors" beginning on page SA-5 of this prospectus and the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus for a discussion of certain factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.

Nasdaq Capital Market symbol

 

"ALBO"

SA-4


Table of Contents


RISK FACTORS

        An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our common stock, you should consider carefully the risks described below and discussed under the sections captioned "Risk Factors" contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as in any of our subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus, the information and documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment.

        Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose part or all of your investment. This prospectus and the incorporated documents also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks mentioned below. Forward-looking statements included in this prospectus are based on information available to us on the date hereof, and all forward-looking statements in documents incorporated by reference are based on information available to us as of the date of such documents. We disclaim any intent to update any forward-looking statements.

Risks Related to this Offering

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from this offering, and you may not agree with how we use the proceeds and the proceeds may not be invested successfully.

        Our management will have broad discretion as to the use of the net proceeds from this offering and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of this offering. Accordingly, you are relying on the judgment of our management with regard to the use of these net proceeds, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds will be used appropriately. It is possible that the proceeds will be invested in a way that does not yield a favorable, or any, return for the Company.

Purchasers will experience immediate dilution in the book value per share of the common stock purchased in the offering.

        The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. However, we expect that the offering price of our common stock will be substantially higher than the net tangible book value per share of our outstanding common stock. After giving effect to the sale of shares of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50.0 million at an assumed offering price of $30.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on March 5, 2019 on The Nasdaq Capital Market, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of December 31, 2018 would have been approximately $153.7 million or approximately $11.31 per share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of approximately $2.51 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in as adjusted net tangible book value of approximately $19.48 per share to purchasers of our common stock in this offering. Because the sales of the shares offered under this prospectus will be made directly into the market, the prices at which we sell these shares will vary and these variations may be significant. Any purchaser of the shares we sell, as well as any existing

SA-5


Table of Contents

stockholder, will experience significant dilution if we sell shares at prices significantly below the price at which the purchaser or existing stockholder invested.

        Further, the exercise of outstanding options could result in further dilution to investors and any additional shares issued in connection with acquisitions will result in dilution to investors. In addition, the market price of our common stock could fall as a result of resales of any of these shares of common stock due to an increased number of shares available for sale in the market. As of December 31, 2018, we had 1,369,504 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding, of which 545,151 shares were vested as of such date, 874,084 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2018 Plan, plus up to an additional 1,376,797 shares subject to outstanding stock options granted under our 2016 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2016 Plan, the Biodel Inc. 2010 Stock Incentive Plan, as amended, or the 2010 Plan, or our 2017 Inducement Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2017 Plan, which may be issued under the 2018 Plan solely after the forfeiture, expiration or cancellation of such stock options, and 300,000 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or the 2018 ESPP.

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

        In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock. We cannot assure you that we will be able to sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is equal to or greater than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share in this offering.

SA-6


Table of Contents


SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

        This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus include forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act that relate to future events or to our future operations or financial performance. Any forward-looking statement involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statement. Our forward-looking statements include statements, other than statements of historical fact, about, among other things:

        Words such as, but not limited to, "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "estimate," "forecast," "intend," "may," "plan," "potential," "predict," "project," "targets," "likely," "will," "would," "could," "should," "continue," "scheduled" and similar expressions or phrases, or the negative of those expressions or phrases, are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, we caution you that these statements are based on our projections of the future that are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement to differ materially from those expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement. Some of these risks, uncertainties and other factors include our critical accounting policies and:

SA-7


Table of Contents

SA-8


Table of Contents

        These and other risks and uncertainties are described in greater detail under the caption "Risk Factors" in this prospectus, as updated and supplemented by the discussion of risks and uncertainties under "Risk Factors" contained in any supplements to this prospectus, or in the sections entitled "Business," "Risk Factors," "Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" or "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K, as revised or supplemented by our subsequent quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or our subsequent current reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments thereto, as filed with the SEC and which are incorporated herein by reference. As a result of the risks and uncertainties, the results or events indicated by the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus or in any document incorporated herein by reference may not occur.

        Investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement. Each forward-looking statement represents our views only as of the date of this prospectus or the date of the document incorporated by reference in this prospectus and should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments may cause our views to change. We expressly disclaim any obligation to update or alter any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make. All subsequent forward-looking statements attributable to us or to any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section.

SA-9


Table of Contents


USE OF PROCEEDS

        We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sale proceeds of up to $50,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We currently intend to use any net proceeds from the sale of securities under this prospectus for our operations and our further development and potential commercialization of our product candidates A4250, elobixibat, and A3384, as well as the development of other product candidates, and other general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, working capital, intellectual property protection and enforcement, capital expenditures, repayment of any existing indebtedness, investments, acquisitions and collaborations. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including the progress of our clinical trials and other development efforts and other factors described under "Risk Factors" in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations. As a result, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds, if any, we receive in connection with the shares of our common stock offered pursuant to this prospectus for any purpose. Pending application of the net proceeds as described above, we may initially invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing securities or apply them to the reduction of short-term indebtedness.


DIVIDEND POLICY

        Except for a single dividend paid by Albireo Limited in 2012, we have never paid or declared any cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.

SA-10


Table of Contents


DILUTION

        If you invest in our common stock, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the price per share of our common stock you pay in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

        As of December 31, 2018, our historical net tangible book value was $105.4 million, or $8.80 per share of common stock. Historical net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets less total liabilities, divided by 11,929,928, the number of shares of common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018.

        After giving effect to the assumed sale of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50.0 million at an assumed offering price of $30.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on March 5, 2019, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of December 31, 2018 would have been $153.7 million, or $11.31 per share of common stock. This amount represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $2.51 per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of approximately $19.48 per share to new investors in this offering.

        The following table illustrates this calculation on a per share basis. The as adjusted information is illustrative only and will adjust based on the actual price to the public, the actual number of shares sold and other terms of the offering determined at the time shares of our common stock are sold pursuant to this prospectus. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices.

Assumed offering price per share

        $ 30.79  

Historical net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2018

  $ 8.80        

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering

    2.51        

As adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

          11.31  

Dilution per share to new investors participating in this offering

        $ 19.48  

        The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 1,623,903 shares of our common stock are sold during the term of the sales agreement with Cowen at a price of $30.79 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market on March 5, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of $50.0 million. The shares subject to the sales agreement with Cowen are being sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $30.79 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50.0 million during the term of the sales agreement with Cowen is sold at that price, would increase our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $11.35 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $20.44 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $30.79 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $50.0 million during the term of the sales agreement with Cowen is sold at that price, would decrease our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $11.26 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to

SA-11


Table of Contents

$18.53 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.

        The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on an aggregate of 11,929,928 shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and excludes:

        To the extent that any shares are issued upon the exercise of outstanding options or otherwise pursuant to any grants made in the future under our 2018 Plan or any shares are issued under our 2018 ESPP, you will experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities may result in further dilution to our stockholders.

SA-12


Table of Contents


DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

        We are authorized to issue 30,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, and 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share. On December 31, 2018, we had approximately 11,929,928 shares of common stock outstanding, no shares of preferred stock outstanding and approximately 28 stockholders of record.

        The following summary of certain provisions of our capital stock does not purport to be complete. You should refer to the section of this prospectus entitled "Certain Provisions of Delaware Law and of the Company's Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws" and our restated certificate of incorporation, as amended, which we refer to as our restated certificate of incorporation, and our amended and restated bylaws, which we refer to as our restated bylaws, both of which are included as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. The summary below is also qualified by provisions of applicable law.

Common Stock

General

        Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future. All shares of common stock outstanding as of the date of this prospectus and, upon issuance and sale, all shares of common stock that we may offer pursuant to this prospectus, will be fully paid and nonassessable.

        In the event of our liquidation or dissolution, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive proportionately our net assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. Our outstanding shares of common stock are validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Transfer Agent and Registrar

        The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company, with offices at 1 State Street, 30th Floor, New York, NY 10004.

Stock Exchange Listing

        Our common stock is listed for quotation on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol "ALBO."

Preferred Stock

        Our board of directors may, without further action by our stockholders, from time to time, direct the issuance of shares of preferred stock in series and may, at the time of issuance, determine the rights, preferences and limitations of each series, including voting rights, dividend rights and redemption and liquidation preferences. Satisfaction of any dividend preferences of outstanding shares of preferred stock would reduce the amount of funds available for the payment of dividends

SA-13


Table of Contents

on shares of our common stock. Holders of shares of preferred stock may be entitled to receive a preference payment in the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our company before any payment is made to the holders of shares of our common stock. In some circumstances, the issuance of shares of preferred stock may render more difficult or tend to discourage a merger, tender offer or proxy contest, the assumption of control by a holder of a large block of our securities or the removal of incumbent management. Upon the affirmative vote of our board of directors, without stockholder approval, we may issue shares of preferred stock with voting and conversion rights which could adversely affect the holders of shares of our common stock.

SA-14


Table of Contents


CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF DELAWARE LAW AND OF THE COMPANY'S CERTIFICATE OF
INCORPORATION AND BYLAWS

Anti-Takeover Provisions

        The provisions of Delaware law and our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws could discourage or make it more difficult to accomplish a proxy contest or other change in our management or the acquisition of control by a holder of a substantial amount of our voting stock. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish, or could deter, transactions that stockholders may otherwise consider to be in their best interests or in our best interests. These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continuity and stability in the composition of our board of directors and in the policies formulated by the board of directors and to discourage certain types of transactions that may involve an actual or threatened change of our control. These provisions are designed to reduce our vulnerability to an unsolicited acquisition proposal and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. Such provisions also may have the effect of preventing changes in our management.

        We are subject to the anti-takeover provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. Section 203 prohibits a publicly-held Delaware corporation from engaging in a "business combination" with an "interested stockholder" for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is, or the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder was, approved in a prescribed manner or another prescribed exception applies. For purposes of Section 203, a "business combination" is defined broadly to include a merger, asset sale or other transaction resulting in a financial benefit to the interested stockholder, and, subject to certain exceptions, an "interested stockholder" is a person who, together with his or her affiliates and associates, owns, or within three years prior, did own, 15% or more of the corporation's voting stock.

        Pursuant to our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws, our board of directors is divided into three classes, with the term of office of each class to expire at the third annual meeting of stockholders following election. At each annual meeting of stockholders, directors elected to succeed those directors whose terms expire, other than directors elected by the holders of any series of preferred stock under specified circumstances, will be elected for a three-year term of office. All directors elected to our classified board of directors will serve until the election and qualification of their respective successors or their earlier death, resignation or removal. Members of the board of directors may be removed only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of the voting power of our then outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class. These provisions are likely to increase the time required for stockholders to change the composition of the board of directors. For example, at least two annual meetings will be necessary for stockholders to effect a change in a majority of the members of the board of directors.

        Our restated bylaws provide that, for nominations to the board of directors or for other business to be properly brought by a stockholder before a meeting of stockholders, the stockholder must first have given timely notice of the proposal in writing to our Secretary. For an annual meeting, a stockholder's notice generally must be delivered not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary of the previous year's annual meeting date. For a special meeting, the notice must generally be delivered not earlier than the 120th day prior to the meeting and not later than the

SA-15


Table of Contents

later of (1) the 90th day prior to the meeting or (2) the 10th day following the day on which public announcement of the meeting is first made. Detailed requirements as to the form of the notice and information required in the notice are specified in the restated bylaws. If it is determined that business was not properly brought before a meeting in accordance with our bylaw provisions, such business will not be conducted at the meeting.

        Special meetings of the stockholders may be called only by the chairman of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer, our President or our board of directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors.

        Any action to be effected by our stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of the stockholders.

        The Delaware General Corporation Law provides generally that the affirmative vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote on any matter is required to amend a corporation's certificate of incorporation or bylaws, unless the corporation's certificate of incorporation or bylaws, as the case may be, require a greater percentage. Our restated certificate of incorporation requires the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 75% of the voting power of all of our outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, to amend or repeal any of the provisions discussed in this section of this prospectus. This 75% stockholder vote would be in addition to any separate class vote that might in the future be required pursuant to the terms of any preferred stock that might then be outstanding. A 75% vote is also required for any amendment to, or repeal of, our restated bylaws by the stockholders. Our restated bylaws may be amended or repealed by vote of a majority of the authorized number of directors.

Limitation of Liability and Indemnification

        Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws provide that we shall indemnify our directors and executive officers to the fullest extent not prohibited by the Delaware General Corporation Law or any other applicable law, except that we are not required to indemnify any director or executive officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized by our board of directors, (iii) we provide such indemnification, in our sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in us under the Delaware General Corporation Law or any other applicable law, or (iv) such indemnification is required to be made under the enforcement provisions of our restated bylaws.

        Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law permits a corporation to indemnify any director or officer of the corporation against expenses (including attorneys' fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred in connection with any action, suit or proceeding brought by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the corporation, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner that he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, if he or she had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. In a derivative action (i.e., one brought by or on behalf of the corporation), indemnification may be provided only for expenses actually and reasonably incurred by any director or officer in connection with the defense or settlement of such an action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner that he or she reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of

SA-16


Table of Contents

the corporation, except that no indemnification shall be provided if such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation, unless and only to the extent that the Delaware Chancery Court or the court in which the action or suit was brought shall determine that such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses despite such adjudication of liability.

        Pursuant to Section 102(b)(7) of the Delaware General Corporation Law, Article Sixth of our restated certificate of incorporation eliminates the liability of a director to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for such a breach of fiduciary duty as a director to the fullest extent under applicable law, which does not include liabilities arising:

        We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers, in addition to the indemnification provided in our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, and intend to enter into indemnification agreements with any new directors and executive officers in the future. We have purchased and intend to maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer against any loss arising from any claim asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, subject to certain exclusions.

        The foregoing discussion of our restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements and Delaware law is not intended to be exhaustive and is qualified in its entirety by such restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements or law.

        Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to our directors, officers and controlling persons pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, we have been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

SA-17


Table of Contents


PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

        We have entered into a sales agreement with Cowen, under which we may issue and sell from time to time up to $50,000,000 of our common stock through Cowen as our sales agent. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an "at the market" offering as defined in Rule 415 under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on The Nasdaq Capital Market or any other trading market for our common stock. If authorized by us in writing, Cowen may purchase shares of our common stock as principal.

        Cowen will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and Cowen. We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through Cowen on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum amount together with Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, Cowen will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct Cowen not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. Cowen or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through Cowen under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party. Cowen and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the sales agreement, to terminate the sales agreement in each party's sole discretion at any time.

        The aggregate compensation payable to Cowen as sales agent equals 3.0% of the gross sales price of the shares sold through it pursuant to the sales agreement. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions payable to Cowen under the sales agreement, will be approximately $150,000.

        The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory, or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.

        Cowen will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on The Nasdaq Capital Market on each day in which common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume weighted average price of the shares sold, the compensation payable by us to Cowen, and the net proceeds to us.

        We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through Cowen under the sales agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to Cowen in connection with the sales of common stock.

        Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

        In connection with the sales of our common stock on our behalf, Cowen will be deemed to be an "underwriter" within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the sales agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to Cowen against certain liabilities, including liabilities under

SA-18


Table of Contents

the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. As sales agent, Cowen will not engage in any transaction that stabilizes our common stock.

        Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market and trades under the symbol "ALBO." The transfer agent of our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.

        Cowen and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us for which services they have received and, may in the future receive, customary fees.

SA-19


Table of Contents


LEGAL MATTERS

        Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C., Boston, Massachusetts, will pass upon the validity of the issuance of the securities to be offered by this prospectus. Cowen and Company, LLC is being represented by Goodwin Procter LLP, New York, New York in connection with this offering.


EXPERTS

        The consolidated financial statements of Albireo Pharma, Inc. appearing in Albireo Pharma, Inc.'s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2018, and the effectiveness of Albireo Pharma, Inc.'s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, have been audited by Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in its reports thereon, which conclude, among other things, that Albireo Pharma, Inc. did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, based on Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework), because of the effects of the material weaknesses described therein, included therein, and incorporated herein by reference. Such financial statements have been incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such reports given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.


WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

        We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. SEC filings are available at the SEC's web site at http://www.sec.gov.

        This prospectus is only part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the SEC under the Securities Act, and therefore omits certain information contained in the registration statement. We have also filed exhibits and schedules with the registration statement that are excluded from this prospectus, and you should refer to the applicable exhibit or schedule for a complete description of any statement referring to any contract or other document.

        We also maintain a website at www.albireopharma.com, through which you can access our SEC filings. The information set forth on our website is not part of this prospectus.

SA-20


Table of Contents


INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

        The SEC allows us to "incorporate by reference" information that we file with them. Incorporation by reference allows us to disclose important information to you by referring you to those other documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede this information. We filed a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act with the SEC with respect to the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. This prospectus omits certain information contained in the registration statement, as permitted by the SEC. You should refer to the registration statement, including the exhibits, for further information about us and the securities we may offer pursuant to this prospectus. Statements in this prospectus regarding the provisions of certain documents filed with, or incorporated by reference in, the registration statement are not necessarily complete and each statement is qualified in all respects by that reference. Copies of all or any part of the registration statement, including the documents incorporated by reference or the exhibits, are available at the SEC's web site at http://www.sec.gov. The documents we are incorporating by reference are:

        The SEC file number for each of the documents listed above is 001-33451.

        In addition, all reports and other documents filed by us pursuant to the Exchange Act after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement shall be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

        Any statement contained in this prospectus or in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

        You may request, orally or in writing, a copy of any or all of the documents incorporated herein by reference. These documents will be provided to you at no cost, by contacting:

Albireo Pharma, Inc.
10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South
Boston, Massachusetts 02109
(857) 254-5555

SA-21


Table of Contents

        You may also access these documents on our website, http://www.albireopharma.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. We have included our website address in this prospectus solely as an inactive textual reference.

        You should rely only on information contained in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We are not making offers to sell the securities in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making such offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.

SA-22


Table of Contents


PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14.    Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

        The following table sets forth an itemization of the various expenses, all of which we will pay, in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered. All of the amounts shown are estimated except the SEC Registration Fee.

SEC Registration Fee

  $ 21,181  

FINRA fee

  $ 26,714  

Printing and Engraving Expenses

      *

Legal Fees and Expenses

      *

Accounting Fees and Expenses

      *

Transfer Agent and Registrar Fees

      *

Miscellaneous

      *

Total

      *

*
Fees depend on number of issuances and amount of securities sold and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.

Item 15.    Indemnification of Directors and Officers

Delaware Law

        Section 102 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware ("DGCL") permits a corporation to eliminate the personal liability of directors of a corporation to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except where the director breached his duty of loyalty, failed to act in good faith, engaged in intentional misconduct or knowingly violated a law, authorized the payment of a dividend or approved a stock repurchase in violation of Delaware corporate law or obtained an improper personal benefit.

        Section 145 of the DGCL provides that a corporation has the power to indemnify a director, officer, employee, or agent of the corporation, or a person serving at the request of the corporation for another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise in related capacities against expenses, including attorneys' fees, judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with an action, suit or proceeding to which he was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, ending or completed action, suit or proceeding by reason of such position, if such person acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, in any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his conduct was unlawful, except that, in the case of actions brought by or in the right of the corporation, no indemnification shall be made with respect to any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or other adjudicating court determines that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all of the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Restated Bylaws

        Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws provide that we shall indemnify our directors and executive officers to the fullest extent not prohibited by the DGCL or any other

II-1


Table of Contents

applicable law, except that we are not required to indemnify any director or executive officer in connection with any proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless (i) such indemnification is expressly required to be made by law, (ii) the proceeding was authorized by our board of directors, (iii) we provide such indemnification, in our sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in us under the DGCL or any other applicable law, or (iv) such indemnification is required to be made under the enforcement provisions of our restated bylaws.

        Our restated bylaws also provide that we shall advance to any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director or executive officer of the Company, or is or was serving at our request as a director or executive officer of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, prior to the final disposition of the proceeding, promptly following request therefor, all expenses incurred by any director or executive officer in connection with such proceeding. However, if the DGCL requires, an advancement of expenses incurred by a director or executive officer in his or her capacity as a director or executive officer (and not in any other capacity in which service was or is rendered by such indemnitee, including service to an employee benefit plan) shall be made only upon delivery to us of an undertaking by or on behalf of such indemnitee, to repay all amounts so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined by final judicial decision from which there is no further right to appeal that such indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified for such expenses under our restated bylaws or otherwise. Unless otherwise determined under our restated bylaws, no advance shall be made by the Company to an executive officer of the Company (except by reasons of the fact that such executive officer is or was a director of the Company) in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative of investigative, if a determination is reasonably and promptly made by (i) our board of directors by a majority vote of directors who were not parties to the proceeding, even if not a quorum, or (ii) by a committee of such directors designated by a majority vote of such directors, even though less than a quorum, or (iii) if there are no such directors, or such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, that the facts known to the decision-making party at the time such determination is made demonstrate clearly and convincingly that such person acted in bad faith or in a manner that such person did not believe to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Company.

        Our restated certificate of incorporation eliminates the liability of a director to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for such a breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liabilities arising:

Indemnification Agreements

        We have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and officers, in addition to the indemnification provided in our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws, and intend to enter into indemnification agreements with any new directors and executive officers in the future. Pursuant to our indemnification agreements, we have agreed to indemnify and hold harmless these directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL. The agreements generally cover expenses that a director or officer incurs or amounts that a director or officer becomes obligated to pay in connection with any proceeding in any way connected with, resulting from or relating to his or her service as a current or former director, officer, employee or agent of the

II-2


Table of Contents

Company or any direct or indirect subsidiary of the Company. The agreements also provide for the advancement of expenses to the directors and officers subject to specified conditions. There are certain exceptions to the Company's obligation to indemnify the directors and officers, including with respect to "short-swing" profit claims under Section 16(b) of the Exchange Act; with respect to conduct by him or her that is established to be knowingly fraudulent or deliberately dishonest or constituted willful misconduct; and, with certain exceptions, with respect to proceedings that he or she initiates.

        We have purchased and intend to maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer against any loss arising from any claim asserted against him or her and incurred by him or her in any such capacity, subject to certain exclusions.

        The foregoing discussion of our restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements and Delaware law is not intended to be exhaustive and is qualified in its entirety by such restated certificate of incorporation, restated bylaws, indemnification agreements or law.

Item 16.    Exhibits

Exhibit
Number
  Exhibit Description   Filed
Herewith
  Incorporated
by Reference
herein from
Form or
Schedule
  Filing Date   SEC File/
Reg.
Number
  1.1 * Form of Underwriting Agreement                

 

1.2

 

Sales Agreement, dated as of March 6, 2019, by and between the Registrant and Cowen and Company, LLC

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

 

Amended and Restated Share Exchange Agreement, dated as of July 13, 2016, by and among the Registrant (formerly Biodel Inc.), Albireo Limited and the Sellers listed on Schedule I thereto.

 

 

 

8-K
(Exhibit 2.1)

 

7/13/2016

 

001-33451

 

4.1

 

Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant, as amended.

 

 

 

S-3
(Exhibit 4.1.1)

 

10/13/2017

 

333-220958

 

4.2

 

Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant.

 

 

 

S-8
(Exhibit 4.2)

 

7/6/2007

 

333-144407

 

4.3

 

Form of common stock certificate.

 

 

 

10-K
(Exhibit 4.1)

 

12/22/2016

 

001-33451

 

4.4

*

Form of Certificate of Amendment or Designation with respect to Preferred Stock.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.5

*

Form of Senior Debt Security.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.6

*

Form of Subordinated Debt Security.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.7

 

Form of Senior Indenture.

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

II-3


Table of Contents

Exhibit
Number
  Exhibit Description   Filed
Herewith
  Incorporated
by Reference
herein from
Form or
Schedule
  Filing Date   SEC File/
Reg.
Number
  4.8   Form of Subordinated Indenture.   X            

 

4.9

*

Form of Warrant Agreement and Warrant Certificate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.10

*

Form of Rights Agreement and Right Certificate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.11

*

Form of Unit Agreement and Unit.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.1

 

Opinion of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. with respect to the legality of the securities being registered.

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23.1

 

Consent of Ernst & Young LLP.

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23.2

 

Consent of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. (included in Exhibit 5.1).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24.1

 

Powers of Attorney (included on signature page to the initial registration statement).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25.1

*

The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Senior Indenture will be incorporated herein by reference from a subsequent filing in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25.2

*

The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Subordinated Indenture will be incorporated herein by reference from a subsequent filing in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*
To be subsequently filed, if applicable, as exhibits to an amendment to this registration statement or a Current Report on Form 8-K.

II-4


Table of Contents

Item 17.    Undertakings

        (a)   The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

II-5


Table of Contents

        (b)   That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act:

        (c)   The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant's annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan's annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

        (d)   Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or

II-6


Table of Contents

controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

        (e)   The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act ("Act") in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

II-7


Table of Contents


SIGNATURES

        Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Boston, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, on March 6, 2019.

    ALBIREO PHARMA, INC.

 

 

By:

 

/s/ RONALD H.W. COOPER

Ronald H.W. Cooper
President and Chief Executive Officer

        Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY

        We, the undersigned officers and directors of Albireo Pharma, Inc., hereby severally constitute and appoint Ronald H.W. Cooper, Simon N.R. Harford and Jason G. Duncan, Esq., and each of them singly (with full power to each of them to act alone), our true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution in each of them for him and in his name, place and stead, and in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement (or any other registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite or necessary to be done in and about the premises, as full to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents or any of them or their or his substitute or substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Signature
 
Title
 
Date

 

 

 

 

 
/s/ RONALD H.W. COOPER

Ronald H.W. Cooper
  President, Chief Executive Officer and Director (principal executive officer)   March 6, 2019

/s/ SIMON N.R. HARFORD

Simon N.R. Harford

 

Chief Financial Officer (principal financial officer and principal accounting officer)

 

March 6, 2019

/s/ DAVID CHISWELL, PH.D.

David Chiswell, Ph.D.

 

Chairman of the Board of Directors

 

March 6, 2019

II-8


Table of Contents

Signature
 
Title
 
Date

 

 

 

 

 
/s/ MICHAEL GUTCH, PH.D.

Michael Gutch, Ph.D.
  Director   March 6, 2019

/s/ ROGER A. JEFFS, PH.D.

Roger A. Jeffs, Ph.D.

 

Director

 

March 6, 2019

/s/ ANNE KLIBANSKI, M.D.

Anne Klibanski, M.D.

 

Director

 

March 6, 2019

/s/ STEPHANIE S. OKEY, M.S.

Stephanie S. Okey, M.S.

 

Director

 

March 6, 2019

/s/ DAVEY S. SCOON

Davey S. Scoon

 

Director

 

March 6, 2019

II-9




Exhibit 1.2

 

Execution Version

 

ALBIREO PHARMA, INC.

 

COMMON STOCK

 

(par value $0.01 per share)

 

SALES AGREEMENT

 

March 6, 2019

 

Cowen and Company, LLC

599 Lexington Avenue

New York, NY 10022

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

Albireo Pharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), as follows:

 

1.                                      Issuance and Sale of Shares.  The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through Cowen, acting as agent and/or principal, shares (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000.  Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the number of shares of Common Stock issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and Cowen shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance.  The issuance and sale of Common Stock through Cowen will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) to be filed by the Company and after such Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement (as defined below) to issue the Placement Shares.

 

The Company has filed or will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference certain documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”).  The Company has prepared a prospectus specifically relating to the Placement Shares (the “Sales Prospectus”) included as part of such registration statement, and will file a final form of such Sales Prospectus pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act.  Following the date that such registration statement is declared effective, the Company will make available to Cowen, for use by Cowen, copies of the Sales Prospectus, as supplemented from time to time by any prospectus supplement relating to the Placement Shares.  Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, as amended when it becomes effective, including all documents filed as part thereof or

 


 

incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or 462(b) of the Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.”  The Sales Prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, which is included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by one or more prospectus supplements, in the form in which such prospectus and/or Sales Prospectus have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 of the Securities Act regulations (“Rule 433”), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (ii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein.  For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission via the Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System (“EDGAR”).

 

2.                                      Placements.  Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell the Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify Cowen by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires the Placement Shares to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one (1) Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule 1.  The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from Cowen set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended in writing from time to time in accordance herewith.  The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by Cowen unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, Cowen declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares thereunder have been sold, (iii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice for any reason, in the Company’s sole discretion, (iv) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding those contained in the earlier dated Placement Notice, or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 11.  The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Cowen in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3.  It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor Cowen will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and

 

2


 

until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to Cowen that is not declined by Cowen pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein.  In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

 

3.                                      Sale of Placement Shares by Cowen.  Subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Company’s delivery of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, Cowen, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of The Nasdaq Capital Market (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with, the terms of such Placement Notice.  Cowen will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to all of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder, setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold, the compensation payable by the Company to Cowen pursuant to Section 5(a) with respect to such sales, any other deductions to the gross proceeds of Placement Shares made by Cowen pursuant to Section 5(a) to calculate the Net Proceeds (as defined below) from such sale, and the Net Proceeds payable to the Company.  Subject to the terms of the Placement Notice, Cowen may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act, including without limitation sales made through Nasdaq or on any other existing trading market for the Common Stock. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 6(ww), Cowen shall not purchase Placement Shares for its own account as principal unless expressly authorized to do so by the Company in a Placement Notice.  The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that Cowen will be successful in selling Placement Shares, and (ii) Cowen will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by Cowen to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Section 3.  For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Company’s Common Stock is purchased and sold on Nasdaq.

 

4.                                      Suspension of Sales.

 

(a)                                             The Company or Cowen may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice.  Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other

 

3


 

unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto, as such schedule may be amended in writing from time to time in accordance with Section 15.

 

(b)                                             Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information, the Company and Cowen agree that (i) no sale of Placement Shares will take place, (ii) the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and (iii) Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

 

(c)                                              If either Cowen or the Company has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied with respect to the Common Stock, it shall promptly notify the other party, and Cowen may, at its sole discretion, suspend sales of the Placement Shares under this Agreement.

 

5.                                      Settlement.

 

(a)                                             Settlement of Placement Shares.  Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date” and the first such settlement date, the “First Delivery Date”).  The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by Cowen at which such Placement Shares were sold, after deduction for (i) Cowen’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to Cowen hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) (Expenses) hereof, and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

 

(b)                                             Delivery of Placement Shares.  On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting Cowen’s or its designee’s account (provided Cowen shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least one (1) Trading Day prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System (“DWAC”) or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form.  Cowen will provide DWAC instructions or instructions for delivery by other means with regard to the electronic transfer of the Placement Shares.  On each Settlement Date, Cowen will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date.  The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized Placement Shares on a Settlement Date, the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) (Indemnification and Contribution), it will (i) hold Cowen harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or reasonable and documented expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company and (ii) pay to

 

4


 

Cowen (without duplication) any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

 

6.                                      Representations and Warranties of the Company.  The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, Cowen that as of each Applicable Time (as defined in Section 20(a)):

 

(a)                                             Compliance with Registration Requirements.  As of each Applicable Time other than the date of this Agreement, the Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement have been declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act, the Company has complied to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information relating to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, contemplated or threatened by the Commission.  The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.  The sale of the Placement Shares hereunder meets the requirements of General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3.

 

(b)                                             No Misstatement or Omission.  The Prospectus when filed complied and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act.  Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any post-effective amendments or supplements thereto, at the time it became effective or its date, as applicable, complied and as of each of the Settlement Dates, if any, complied and will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and did not and, as of each Settlement Date, if any, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.  The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date, did not and, as of each of the Settlement Dates, if any, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.  The representations and warranties set forth in the two immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to Cowen furnished to the Company in writing by Cowen expressly for use therein.  There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required.

 

(c)                                              Offering Materials Furnished to Cowen.  As of each Applicable Time other than the date of this Agreement, the Company has delivered to Cowen one complete copy of the Registration Statement and a copy of each consent and certificate of experts filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits) and the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and at such places as Cowen has reasonably requested.

 

5


 

(d)                                             Documents Incorporated by Reference.  The documents incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, when they were filed with the Commission, conformed in all material respects to the requirements of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, as applicable, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder and none of such documents contained any untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state any material fact required to be stated therein, or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; and any further documents so filed and incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, when such documents are filed with Commission will conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, as applicable, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(e)                                              Distribution of Offering Materials.  The Company has not, directly or indirectly, distributed and will not distribute, prior to the completion of Cowen’s distribution of the Placement Shares, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Prospectus, the Registration Statement or any other materials, if any, permitted under the Securities Act.

 

(f)                                               Not an Ineligible Issuer.  At the time of filing the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, and at the date hereof, the Company was not, and the Company will not be, an “ineligible issuer,” as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

(g)                                              Organization and Good Standing.  The Company and each of its subsidiaries (as defined in Section 20(b)) have been duly organized and are validly existing as corporations or other legal entities in good standing (or the foreign equivalent thereof) under the laws of their respective jurisdictions of organization.  The Company and each of its subsidiaries are duly qualified to do business and are in good standing as foreign corporations or other legal entities in each jurisdiction in which their respective ownership or lease of property or the conduct of their respective businesses requires such qualification and have all power and authority (corporate or other) necessary to own or hold their respective properties and to conduct the businesses in which they are engaged, except where the failure to so qualify or have such power or authority would not (i) have, singularly or in the aggregate, a material adverse effect on the business, properties, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, or (ii) impair in any material respect the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement or to consummate any transactions contemplated by this Agreement or the Prospectus (any such effect as described in clauses (i) or (ii), a “Material Adverse Effect”).  The subsidiaries listed in Schedule 4 to this agreement are the only Significant Subsidiaries (as defined in Section 6(gg)).

 

(h)                                             The Sales Agreement.  This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

 

6


 

(i)                                                 The Placement Shares.  The Placement Shares to be sold by Cowen, acting as agent and/or principal for the Company, have been duly authorized and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable and will conform to the descriptions thereof in the Prospectus; and the issuance of the Placement Shares are not subject to any preemptive or similar rights.

 

(j)                                                Capitalization.  The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth under the heading “Description of Capital Stock” in the Sales Prospectus, and (i) to the Company’s knowledge, all of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company issued prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date (defined below) have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and non-assessable, have been issued in compliance with federal and state securities laws, and conform to the description thereof contained in the Sales Prospectus under the heading “Description of Capital Stock” and (ii) all of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company issued on and after the Share Exchange Closing Date have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and non-assessable, have been issued in compliance with federal and state securities laws, and conform to the description thereof contained in the Sales Prospectus under the heading “Description of Capital Stock”.  To the Company’s knowledge, all of the Company’s options, warrants and other rights to purchase or exchange any securities for shares of the Company’s capital stock granted prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date have been duly authorized and validly issued and were issued in compliance with federal and state securities laws.  All of the Company’s options, warrants and other rights to purchase or exchange any securities for shares of the Company’s capital stock granted on or after the Share Exchange Closing Date have been duly authorized and validly issued and were issued in compliance with federal and state securities laws.  None of the outstanding shares of Common Stock was issued in violation of any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities of the Company.  As of the date the Registration Statement is filed, there were or will be no authorized or outstanding shares of capital stock, options, warrants, preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other rights to purchase, or equity or debt securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for, any capital stock of the Company or any of its subsidiaries other than those described above or accurately described in the Prospectus.  The description of the Company’s stock option, stock bonus and other stock plans or arrangements, and the options or other rights granted thereunder, as described in the Prospectus, accurately and fairly present the information required to be shown with respect to such plans, arrangements, options and rights.  Reference is made to November 3, 2016, which was the date of the closing of the share exchange contemplated by the Amended and Restated Share Exchange Agreement dated as of July 13, 2016, by and among Biodel Inc., Albireo Limited and the sellers listed on Schedule I thereto (the “Share Exchange Closing Date”).

 

(k)                                             Capitalization of Subsidiaries.  All the outstanding shares of capital stock (if any) of each subsidiary of the Company have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and, except to the extent set forth in the Prospectus, are owned by the Company directly or indirectly through one or more wholly-owned subsidiaries, free and clear of any claim, lien, encumbrance, security interest, restriction upon voting or transfer or any other claim of any third party.

 

7


 

(l)                                                 No Conflicts.  The execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement by the Company, the issue and sale of the Placement Shares by the Company and the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby will not (with or without notice or lapse of time or both) (i) conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, constitute a default or a Debt Repayment Triggering Event (as defined below) under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, encumbrance, security interest, claim or charge upon any property or assets of the Company or any subsidiary pursuant to, any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject, (ii) result in any violation of the provisions of the charter or by-laws (or analogous governing instruments, as applicable) of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or (iii) result in the violation of any law, statute, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree of any court or governmental or regulatory agency or body, domestic or foreign, having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their properties or assets except, in the case of clauses (i) and (iii) above, for any such conflict, breach, violation or default that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.  A “Debt Repayment Triggering Event” means any event or condition that gives, or with the giving of notice or lapse of time would give the holder of any note, debenture or other evidence of indebtedness (or any person acting on such holder’s behalf) the right to require the repurchase, redemption or repayment of all or a portion of such indebtedness by the Company of any of its subsidiaries.

 

(m)                                         No Consents Required.  Except for the registration of the offer and sale of the Placement Shares under the Securities Act and applicable state securities laws, and such consents, approvals, authorizations, orders and registrations or qualifications as may be required by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) or Nasdaq in connection with sale of the Placement Shares and the listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq, no consent, approval, authorization or order of, or filing, qualification or registration (each an “Authorization”) with, any court, governmental or regulatory agency or body, foreign or domestic, which has not been made, obtained or taken and is not in full force and effect, is required for the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement by the Company, the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares or the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby; and no event has occurred that allows or results in, or after notice or lapse of time or both would allow or result in, revocation, suspension, termination or invalidation of any such Authorization or any other impairment of the rights of the holder or maker of any such Authorization.

 

(n)                                             Independent Auditors.  Ernst & Young LLP, who has audited and certified certain financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, is an independent registered public accounting firm with respect to the Company and its subsidiaries within the meaning of Article 2-01 of Regulation S-X and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (the “PCAOB”).

 

(o)                                             Financial Statements.  The financial statements, together with the related notes, included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus and the Registration Statement

 

8


 

fairly present, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position and the results of operations and changes in financial position of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries at the respective dates or for the respective periods therein specified.  Such statements and related notes have been prepared in accordance with the generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved except as may be set forth in the related notes included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus.  The financial statements, together with the related notes, included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus comply in all material respects with Regulation S-X.  No other financial statements or supporting schedules or exhibits are required by Regulation S-X to be described, included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.  The summary and selected financial data included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus and the Registration Statement fairly present, in all material respects, the information shown therein as at the respective dates and for the respective periods specified and are derived from the consolidated financial statements set forth incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and other financial information.  All information contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as defined in Regulation G) complies with Regulation G and Item 10 of Regulation S-K, to the extent applicable.

 

(p)                                             eXtensible Business Reporting Language.  The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance in all material respects with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

 

(q)                                             No Material Adverse Change.  Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has sustained, since the date of the latest audited financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus: (i) any material loss or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor dispute or action, order or decree of any court or governmental or regulatory authority, otherwise than as set forth or contemplated in the Prospectus; (ii) any change in the capital stock (other than the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of stock options and warrants and vesting of restricted stock units described as outstanding in, and the grant of options and awards under existing equity incentive plans described in, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus) or any increase in the long-term debt of the Company or any of its subsidiaries; (iii) any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, set aside for payment, paid or made by the Company on any class of capital stock; or (iv) any material adverse change, or any development involving a prospective material adverse change, in or affecting the business, properties, assets, general affairs, management, financial position, prospects, stockholders’ equity or results of operations of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, otherwise than as set forth or contemplated in the Prospectus.

 

(r)                                                Legal Proceedings.  Except as set forth in Prospectus, there is no legal or governmental proceeding to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or of which any property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is the subject, including any proceeding before the United States Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“FDA”) or comparable federal, state, local or foreign

 

9


 

governmental bodies (it being understood that the interaction between the Company and the FDA and such comparable governmental bodies relating to the testing, nonclinical and clinical development, manufacture and product approval process shall not be deemed proceedings for purposes of this representation), which is required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or a document incorporated by reference therein and is not described therein, or which, singularly or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and no such proceedings are, to the Company’s knowledge after reasonable investigation and due diligence inquiry (if investigation or inquiry is reasonable under the circumstances) (“Knowledge”), threatened or contemplated by governmental or regulatory authorities or threatened by others.  The Company is in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, regulations, orders and decrees governing its business as prescribed by the FDA, or any other federal, state or foreign agencies or bodies engaged in the regulation of pharmaceuticals or biohazardous substances or materials, except where noncompliance would not, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.  All preclinical and clinical studies conducted by or on behalf of the Company to support approval for commercialization of the Company’s products have been conducted by the Company, or to the Company’s Knowledge by third parties, in compliance with all applicable federal, state or foreign laws, rules, orders and regulations, except for such failure or failures to be in compliance as would not reasonably be expected to have, singularly or in the aggregate, a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(s)                                               No Violation or Default.  Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its charter or by-laws (or analogous governing instrument, as applicable), (ii) in default in any respect, and no event has occurred which, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the due performance or observance of any term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement, lease or other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it is bound or to which any of its property or assets is subject, or (iii) in violation in any respect of any law, ordinance, governmental rule, regulation or court order, decree or judgment to which it or its property or assets may be subject (including, without limitation, those administered by the FDA or by any foreign, federal, state or local governmental or regulatory authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA) except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such violation or default that would not, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(t)                                                Licenses or Permits.  The Company and its subsidiaries possess all licenses, certificates, authorizations and permits issued by, and have made all declarations and filings with, the appropriate local, state, federal or foreign governmental or regulatory agencies or bodies (including, without limitation, those administered by the FDA or by any foreign, federal, state or local governmental or regulatory authority performing functions similar to those performed by the FDA) that are necessary for the ownership or lease of their respective properties or the conduct of their respective businesses as now conducted or as proposed in the Prospectus to be conducted (collectively, the “Governmental Permits”), except where any failure to possess or make the same would not, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.  The Company and its subsidiaries are in compliance, in all material respects, with all such Governmental Permits; and all such Governmental Permits are valid and in full force and effect, except where the validity or failure to be in full force and effect would not,

 

10


 

singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.  Neither the Company nor any subsidiary has received notification of any revocation, modification, suspension, termination or invalidation (or proceedings related thereto) of any such Governmental Permit and the Company has no reason to believe that any such Governmental Permit will not be renewed.

 

(u)                                             Regulatory Matters.  The preclinical tests or studies or clinical trials conducted by or on behalf of the Company that are described in the Prospectus (the “Company Studies and Trials”) were, or if still pending are being, conducted in all material respects in accordance with experimental protocols, procedures and controls pursuant to, where applicable, accepted professional scientific standards, except as described in the Prospectus; the descriptions of the results of the Company Studies and Trials contained in the Prospectus are accurate in all material respects; the Company has no Knowledge of any other studies or trials not described in the Prospectus, the results of which are inconsistent with or call in question the results described or referred to in the Prospectus; and the Company has not received any notices or correspondence from the FDA or any foreign, state or local governmental body exercising comparable authority requiring the termination, suspension or material modification of any Company Studies or Trials that termination, suspension or material modification would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect and, to the Company’s Knowledge, there are no reasonable grounds for the same.  The Company has obtained (or caused to be obtained) informed consent by or on behalf of each human subject who participated in the Company Studies and Trials.  In using or disclosing patient information received by the Company in connection with the Company Studies and Trials, the Company has complied in all material respects with all laws and regulatory rules or requirements, in each case to the extent applicable, including, without limitation, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and the rules and regulations thereunder.  To the Company’s Knowledge, none of the Company Studies and Trials involved any investigator who has been disqualified as a clinical investigator or has been found by the FDA to have engaged in scientific misconduct.  To the Company’s Knowledge, the manufacturing facilities and operations of its suppliers are operated in compliance in all material respects with all applicable statutes, rules, regulations and policies of the FDA and comparable regulatory agencies outside of the United States to which the Company is subject.  For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(v)                                             Investment Company Act. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is or, after giving effect to the offering of the Placement Shares and the application of Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus, will be required to register as an “investment company” or an entity “controlled” by an “investment company” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

 

(w)                                           No Stabilization.  Neither the Company nor, to the Company’s Knowledge, any of its officers, directors or affiliates has taken or will take, directly or indirectly, any action designed or intended to stabilize or manipulate the price of any security of the Company, or which caused or resulted in, or which might in the future reasonably be expected to cause or result in, stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company.

 

11


 

(x)                                             Intellectual Property.  Except as disclosed in the Prospectus, the Company or its subsidiaries own or possess the lawful right to use all (i) valid and enforceable patents, patent applications, trademarks, trademark registrations, service marks, service mark registrations, Internet domain name registrations, copyrights, copyright registrations, licenses, trade secret rights (“Intellectual Property Rights”) and (ii) inventions, software, works of authorships, trademarks, service marks, trade names, databases, formulae, know how, Internet domain names and other intellectual property (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary confidential information, systems, or procedures) (collectively, “Intellectual Property Assets”) necessary to conduct their respective businesses as currently conducted, and as proposed to be conducted and described in the Prospectus.  The Company and its subsidiaries have not received any opinion from their legal counsel concluding that any activities of their respective businesses infringe, misappropriate, or otherwise violate, valid and enforceable Intellectual Property Rights of any other person, and have not received written notice of any challenge, which is to their Knowledge still pending, by any other person to the rights of the Company and its subsidiaries with respect to any Intellectual Property Rights or Intellectual Property Assets owned or used by the Company or its subsidiaries.  To the Company’s Knowledge, the Company and its subsidiaries’ respective businesses as now conducted do not give rise to any infringement of, any misappropriation of, or other violation of, any valid and enforceable Intellectual Property Rights of any other person.  All licenses for the use of the Intellectual Property Rights described in the Prospectus are valid, binding upon, and enforceable by or against the respective parties thereto in accordance with their respective terms.  The Company has complied in all material respects with, and is not in breach nor has received any asserted or threatened claim of breach of any license of its Intellectual Property Rights, and the Company has no knowledge of any breach or anticipated breach by any other person to any Intellectual Property license.  Except as described in the Prospectus, no claim has been made against the Company alleging the infringement by the Company of any patent, trademark, service mark, trade name, copyright, trade secret, license in or other intellectual property right or franchise right of any person.  The Company has taken reasonable steps to protect, maintain and safeguard its Intellectual Property Rights, including the execution of appropriate nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements.  The consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement will not result in the loss or impairment of or payment of any additional amounts with respect to, nor require the consent of any other person in respect of, the Company’s right to own, use, or hold for use any of the Intellectual Property Rights as owned, used or held for use in the conduct of the business as currently conducted.  The Company has at all times complied in all material respects with all applicable laws relating to privacy, data protection, and the collection and use of personal information collected, used, or held for use by the Company in the conduct of the Company’s business.  No claims have been asserted or threatened against the Company alleging a violation of any person’s privacy or personal information or data rights and the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby will not breach or otherwise cause any violation of any law related to privacy, data protection, or the collection and use of personal information collected, used, or held for use by the Company in the conduct of the Company’s business.  The Company takes reasonable measures to ensure that such information is protected against unauthorized access, use, modification, or other misuse.  For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed

 

12


 

prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(y)                                             Title to Real and Personal Property.  Except as disclosed in the Prospectus, the Company and each of its subsidiaries have good and marketable title in and (in the case of real property) to, or have valid and marketable rights to lease or otherwise use, all items of real or personal property which are material to the business of the Company and its subsidiaries taken as a whole, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, security interests, claims and defects except those that (i) do not, singularly or in the aggregate, materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company or any of its subsidiaries or (ii) would not reasonably be expected, singularly or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(z)                                              No Labor Dispute.  There is (A) no significant unfair labor practice complaint pending against the Company, or any of its subsidiaries, nor to the Company’s Knowledge, threatened against it or any of its subsidiaries, before the National Labor Relations Board, any state or local labor relation board or any foreign labor relations board, and no significant grievance or significant arbitration proceeding arising out of or under any collective bargaining agreement is so pending against the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or, to the Company’s Knowledge, threatened against it and (B) no labor disturbance by or dispute with, employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists or, to the Company’s Knowledge, is contemplated or threatened, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its or its subsidiaries’ principal suppliers, manufacturers, customers or contractors, that would reasonably be expected, singularly or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect.  The Company is not aware that any key employee or significant group of employees of the Company or any subsidiary plans to terminate employment with the Company or any such subsidiary.  For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(aa)                                      Compliance with ERISA.  No “prohibited transaction” (as defined in Section 406 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, including the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (“ERISA”), or Section 4975 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended from time to time (the “Code”)) or “accumulated funding deficiency” (as defined in Section 302 of ERISA) or any of the events set forth in Section 4043(b) of ERISA (other than events with respect to which the thirty (30)-day notice requirement under Section 4043 of ERISA has been waived) has occurred or would reasonably be expected to occur with respect to any employee benefit plan of the Company or any of its subsidiaries which would, singularly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.  Each employee benefit plan of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is in compliance in all material respects with applicable law, including ERISA and the Code. The Company and its subsidiaries have not incurred, and would not reasonably be expected to incur, liability under Title IV of ERISA with respect to the termination of, or withdrawal from, any pension plan (as defined in ERISA).  Each pension plan for which the Company or any of its subsidiaries would have any liability that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified, and nothing has occurred, whether by action

 

13


 

or by failure to act, which would, singularly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to cause the loss of such qualification.  For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(bb)                                      Environmental Laws and Hazardous Materials.  The Company and its subsidiaries are in compliance in all material respects with all foreign, federal, state and local rules, laws and regulations relating to the use, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous or toxic substances or waste and protection of health and safety or the environment which are applicable to their businesses (“Environmental Laws”).  There has been no storage, generation, transportation, handling, treatment, disposal, discharge, emission, or other release of any kind of toxic or other wastes or other hazardous substances by, due to, or caused by the Company or any of its subsidiaries (or, to the Company’s Knowledge, any other entity for whose acts or omissions the Company or any of its subsidiaries is or may otherwise be liable) upon any of the property now or previously owned or leased by the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or upon any other property, in violation of any law, statute, ordinance, rule, regulation, order, judgment, decree or permit or which would, under any law, statute, ordinance, rule (including rule of common law), regulation, order, judgment, decree or permit, give rise to any liability; and there has been no disposal, discharge, emission or other release of any kind onto such property or into the environment surrounding such property of any toxic or other wastes or other hazardous substances with respect to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries has knowledge.  For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(cc)                                        Taxes.  The Company and its subsidiaries each (i) have timely filed all necessary federal, state, local and foreign tax returns, and all such returns were true, complete and correct, (ii) have paid all federal, state, local and foreign taxes due and payable, for which it is liable, including, without limitation, all sales and use taxes and all taxes which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is obligated to withhold from amounts owing to employees, creditors and third parties, and (iii) do not have any tax deficiency or claims outstanding or assessed or, to its Knowledge, proposed against any of them, except those, in each of the cases described in clauses (i), (ii) and (iii) above, that would not, singularly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.  For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(dd)                                      Insurance.  The Company and each of its subsidiaries carry, or are covered by, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is adequate for the conduct of their respective businesses and the value of their respective properties.  Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business at a cost that would not have a Material Adverse Effect.  None of (i) Albireo Limited or any of its subsidiaries prior to the

 

14


 

Share Exchange Closing Date or (ii) the Company or any of its subsidiaries from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date has received written notice from any insurer, agent of such insurer or the broker of the Company or any of its subsidiaries that any material capital improvements or any other material expenditures (other than premium payments) are required or necessary to be made in order to continue such insurance.

 

(ee)                                        Accounting Controls.  The Company and each of its subsidiaries maintains a system of “internal control over financial reporting” (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) of the General Rules and Regulations under the Exchange Act (the “Exchange Act Rules”)) that, except as described in the Prospectus, complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act and has been designed by their respective principal executive and principal financial officers, or under their supervision, to provide reasonable assurances that: (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences and (v) interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.  Except as described in the Prospectus, (1) the Company’s internal control over financial reporting is effective and (2) since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been (A) no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and (B) no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

 

(ff)                                          Disclosure Controls.  The Company and its subsidiaries maintain disclosure controls and procedures (as such is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) of the Exchange Act Rules) that comply with the requirements of the Exchange Act; such disclosure controls and procedures have been designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company and its subsidiaries in reports that they file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including controls and procedures designed to ensure that such information is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management to allow timely decisions regarding disclosures.  Since the Share Exchange Closing Date, the Company and its subsidiaries have conducted evaluations of the effectiveness of their disclosure controls as required by Rule 13a-15 of the Exchange Act.

 

(gg)                                        Minute Books.  The minute books of the Company and each of its subsidiaries that would be a “significant subsidiary” within the meaning of Rule 1-02(w) of Regulation S-X  (such a significant subsidiary of the Company, a “Significant Subsidiary”) have been made available to Cowen and counsel for Cowen, and such books (i) contain a complete summary, in all material respects, of all meetings and actions of the board of directors (including each board committee) and stockholders of the Company (or analogous governing bodies and interest holders, as applicable), and each of its Significant Subsidiaries since the time of its respective

 

15


 

incorporation or organization through the date of the latest meeting and action, and (ii) accurately in all material respects reflect all transactions referred to in such minutes.  For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its Significant Subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its Significant Subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its Significant Subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(hh)                                      No Undisclosed Relationships.  No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company or any of its subsidiaries on the one hand, and the directors, officers, stockholders (or analogous interest holders), customers or suppliers of the Company or any of its affiliates on the other hand, which is required to be described in the Prospectus or a document incorporated by reference therein and which is not so described.

 

(ii)                                              No Registration Rights.  No person or entity has the right to require registration of shares of Common Stock or other securities of the Company or any of its subsidiaries because of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or otherwise, except for persons and entities who have expressly waived such right in writing or who have been given timely and proper written notice and have failed to exercise such right within the time or times required under the terms and conditions of such right.  Except as described in the Prospectus, there are no persons with registration rights or similar rights to have any securities registered by the Company or any of its subsidiaries under the Securities Act.

 

(jj)                                            Margin Rules.  The application of the proceeds received by the Company from the issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares as described in the Prospectus will not violate Regulation T, U or X of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve system or any other regulation of such Board of Governors.

 

(kk)                                      No Broker’s Fees. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is a party to any contract, agreement or understanding with any person (other than this Agreement) that would give rise to a valid claim against the Company or any of its subsidiaries or Cowen for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or like payment in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares or any transaction contemplated by this Agreement or the Sales Prospectus.

 

(ll)                                              No Restrictions on Subsidiaries.  Except as described in the Prospectus, no subsidiary of the Company is currently prohibited, directly or indirectly, under any agreement or other instrument to which it is a party or is subject, from paying any dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution on such subsidiary’s capital stock, from repaying to the Company any loans or advances to such subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any of such subsidiary’s properties or assets to the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company.

 

(mm)                              Forward-Looking Statements.  No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) contained in the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

 

16


 

(nn)                                      Listing.  The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.  The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or 12(g) of the Exchange Act and is listed on Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or FINRA is contemplating terminating such registration or listing.

 

(oo)                                      Sarbanes-Oxley Act.  There is and, since the Share Exchange Closing Date, has been no failure on the part of the company or, to the Company’s Knowledge, any of the Company’s officers or directors, in their capacities as such, to comply with any provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), including Section 402 related to loans and Sections 302 and 906 related to certifications.

 

(pp)                                      Related Party Transactions.  There are no business relationships or related-party transactions involving the Company or any subsidiary or any other person required to be described in the Prospectus which have not been described as required.

 

(qq)                                      No Unlawful Payments.  Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries nor, to the Company’s Knowledge, any director, officer, employee, agent, affiliate or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any subsidiary, has (i) used any corporate funds for unlawful contributions, gifts, entertainment or other unlawful expenses relating to political activity, (ii) made any direct or indirect unlawful payment to foreign or domestic government officials or employees, political parties or campaigns, political party officials, or candidates for political office from corporate funds, (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or any applicable anti-corruption laws, rules, or regulations of any other jurisdiction in which the Company or any subsidiary conducts business, or (iv) made any other unlawful bribe, rebate, payoff, influence payment, kickback, or other unlawful payment to any person.  For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(rr)                                            Statistical and Market Data. The statistical and market related data included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes to be reliable and accurate (but has not independently verified), and such data agree with the sources from which they are derived.

 

(ss)                                          Compliance with Money Laundering Laws.  The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with all applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the U.S. Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), and the applicable anti-money laundering statutes of jurisdictions where the Company and its subsidiaries conduct business, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental

 

17


 

agency (collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”), and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.  For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(tt)                                            Compliance with OFAC.

 

(A)       Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any director, officer, employee, agent, affiliate or representative of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, is an individual or entity (“Person”) that is, or is owned or controlled by a Person that is: (i) the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), the United Nations Security Council (“UNSC”), the European Union (“EU”), Her Majesty’s Treasury (“HMT”), or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor (ii) located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of a U.S. government embargo (including, without limitation, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Syria and the Crimea).

 

(B)       The Company will not, directly or indirectly, use the Net Proceeds, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such Net Proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other Person: (i) to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any Person that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions, or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of a U.S. government embargo; or (ii) in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any Person (including any Person participating in the offering, whether as agent, underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise).

 

(C)       For the past five (5) years, the Company and its subsidiaries have not knowingly engaged in, are not now knowingly engaged in, and will not engage in, any direct or indirect dealings or transactions with any Person that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions or any country or territory that, at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of a U.S. government embargo.  For purposes of this paragraph, the Company and its subsidiaries shall be deemed to refer to (1) Albireo Limited and its subsidiaries as they existed prior to the Share Exchange Closing Date and (2) the Company and its subsidiaries solely from and after the Share Exchange Closing Date.

 

(uu)                                      No Associated Persons; FINRA Matters.  Neither the Company nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any of its affiliates (within the meaning of FINRA Rule 5121(f)(1)) directly or indirectly controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, or

 

18


 

is an associated person (within the meaning of Article I, Section 1(ee) of the By-laws of FINRA) of, any member firm of FINRA.

 

(vv)                                      No Reliance.  The Company has not relied upon Cowen or legal counsel for Cowen for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.

 

(ww)                                  Cowen Purchases.  The Company acknowledges and agrees that Cowen has informed the Company that Cowen may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, purchase and sell shares of Common Stock for its own account while this Agreement is in effect, provided, that (i) no such purchase or sales shall take place while a Placement Notice is in effect (except to the extent Cowen may engage in sales of Placement Shares purchased or deemed purchased from the Company as a “riskless principal” or in a similar capacity) and (ii) the Company shall not be deemed to have authorized or consented to any such purchases or sales by Cowen.

 

Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to Cowen or to counsel for Cowen shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company to Cowen as to the matters set forth therein.

 

The Company acknowledges that Cowen and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 7, counsel to the Company and counsel to Cowen, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

 

7.                                      Covenants of the Company.  The Company covenants and agrees with Cowen that:

 

(a)                                             Registration Statement Amendments.  After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act) (the “Prospectus Delivery Period”): (i) the Company will notify Cowen promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information, insofar as it relates to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement; (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon Cowen’s reasonable request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, insofar as it relates to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, that, in Cowen’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable to comply with law in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by Cowen (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement, and provided, further, that the only remedy Cowen shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to make such filing shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any

 

19


 

amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Cowen within a reasonable period of time before the filing and Cowen has not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement, and provided, further, that the only remedy Cowen shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to make such submission to Cowen shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to Cowen at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act.

 

(b)                                             Notice of Commission Stop Orders.  The Company will advise Cowen, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued.

 

(c)                                              Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes.  During the Prospectus Delivery Period, the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates (taking into account any extensions available under the Exchange Act that would permit the Company to continue to meet the eligibility requirements of Form S-3) all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act.  If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify Cowen to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that the Company may delay the filing of any amendment or supplement if, in the judgment of the Company, it is in the best interests of the Company to do so.  Until such time as the Company shall have corrected such statement or omission or effected such compliance, the Company shall not request that Cowen resume the offering of Placement Shares.

 

(d)                                             Listing of Placement Shares.  During the Prospectus Delivery Period, the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on Nasdaq and to qualify the Placement Shares for sale under the securities laws of such

 

20


 

jurisdictions in the United States as Cowen reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities or file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction.

 

(e)                                              Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus.  The Company will furnish to Cowen and its counsel (at the reasonable expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during the Prospectus Delivery Period (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as Cowen may from time to time reasonably request and, at Cowen’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to Cowen to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

 

(f)                                               Earnings Statement.  The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act. The Company’s compliance with the periodic reporting requirements of the Exchange Act shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of this Section 7(f).

 

(g)                                              Expenses.  The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated in accordance with the provisions of Section 11, will pay the following expenses all incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including, but not limited to, expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, and of each Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto, (ii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the qualification of the Placement Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(d) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for Cowen in connection therewith shall be paid by Cowen), (iv) the printing and delivery to Cowen of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Placement Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, of the Commission, (vii) the filing fees for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department, and (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of Cowen’s counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000.

 

(h)                                             Use of Proceeds.  The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

 

(i)                                                 Notice of Other Sales.  During the pendency of any Placement Notice given hereunder, and for five (5) Trading Days following the termination of any Placement Notice

 

21


 

given hereunder, the Company shall provide Cowen notice as promptly as reasonably possible before it offers to sell, contracts to sell, sells, grants any option to sell or otherwise disposes of any shares of Common Stock (other than Placement Shares offered pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Stock; provided, that such notice shall not be required in connection with (i) the issuance, grant or sale of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock, restricted shares of Common Stock, restricted stock units, other equity awards, or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise or vesting of options, restricted stock units or other equity awards pursuant to any stock option, stock bonus or other stock plan or arrangement described in the Prospectus, (ii) the issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition, merger or sale or purchase of assets, (iii) the issuance or sale of Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company may adopt from time to time, provided the implementation of such plan is disclosed to Cowen in advance, (iv) the issuance or sale of any shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding or disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to Cowen prior to the date of the applicable Placement Notice, or (v) the issuance or sale of Common Stock, or securities convertible into or exercisable for Common Stock, offered and sold in a privately-negotiated transaction to vendors, customers, strategic partners or potential strategic partners and otherwise conducted in a manner so as not to be integrated with the offering of Placement Shares.  Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, nothing herein shall be construed to restrict the Company’s ability, or require the Company to provide notice to Cowen, to file a registration statement under the Securities Act.

 

(j)                                                Change of Circumstances.  The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Placement Shares, advise Cowen promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(k)                                             Due Diligence Cooperation.  During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by Cowen or its agents in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, at mutually convenient times during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as Cowen may reasonably request.

 

(l)                                                 Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares.  The Company agrees that, on or before such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the amount of Placement Shares sold through Cowen, the Net Proceeds and the compensation payable by the Company to Cowen with respect to such Placement Shares (provided that the Company may also satisfy its obligations under this Section 7(l)(i) by including such information in a filing under the Exchange Act), and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to

 

22


 

each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market.

 

(m)                                         Representation Dates; Certificate.  On or prior to the First Delivery Date and each time the Company subsequently thereafter during the term of this Agreement: (i) files the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares, (ii) amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Sales Prospectus (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l)) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference to the Registration Statement or the Sales Prospectus; (iii) files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act; (iv) files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or (v) files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than a filing made in connection with the issuance of an earnings release or other information “furnished” under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (v) shall be a “Representation Date); the Company shall furnish Cowen with certificates, in the forms attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) within three (3) Trading Days after such Representation Date if requested by Cowen.  The requirement to provide the certificates under this Section 7(m) shall be automatically waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date; provided, however, that such waiver shall not apply for any Representation Date that is the date on which the Company files its annual report on Form 10-K; and provided, further, that the requirement to provide the certificate of the Chief Financial Officer of the Company under this Section 7(m) shall be automatically waived for each Representation Date unless the Comfort Letter provided with respect to such Representation Date does not cover all financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings.  Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide Cowen with certificates under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or Cowen sells any Placement Shares, the Company shall provide Cowen with certificates, in the forms attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), each dated the date of the Placement Notice.

 

(n)                                             Legal Opinion.  On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within five (5) Trading Days after each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver certificates in the forms attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen a written opinion of Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo, P.C. (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered, substantially similar to the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(n), modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent Representation Dates, Company Counsel may furnish Cowen with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that Cowen may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements

 

23


 

in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).

 

(o)                                             Comfort Letter.  On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within five (5) Trading Days after each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver certificates in the forms attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen a letter (the Comfort Letter), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the Initial Comfort Letter) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

 

(p)                                             Market Activities.  The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase the Placement Shares, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than Cowen; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of its common stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

 

(q)                                             Insurance.  The Company and its subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business in which it is engaged.

 

(r)                                                Compliance with Laws.  The Company and each of its subsidiaries shall use its reasonable best efforts to maintain, or cause to be maintained, all material environmental permits, licenses and other authorizations required by federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus, and the Company and each of its subsidiaries shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations and with applicable environmental laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

(s)                                               Investment Company Act.  The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor its subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act, assuming no change in the Commission’s current interpretations as to entities that are not considered an investment company.

 

24


 

(t)                                                Securities Act and Exchange Act.  The Company will use its reasonable best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.

 

(u)                                             No Offer to Sell.  Other than the Prospectus and any free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) approved in advance by the Company and Cowen in its capacity as principal or agent hereunder, neither Cowen nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than Cowen in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.

 

(v)                                             Sarbanes-Oxley Act.  The Company and its subsidiaries will use their reasonable best efforts to comply with all effective and applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

 

8.                                      Conditions to Cowen’s Obligations.  The obligations of Cowen hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by Cowen of a due diligence review satisfactory to Cowen in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by Cowen in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

 

(a)                                             Registration Statement Effective.  The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for the sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued by any Placement Notice.

 

(b)                                             No Material Notices.  None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing:  (i) receipt by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus to be filed with the Commission; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, related Prospectus or such documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a

 

25


 

material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

(c)                                              No Misstatement or Material Omission.  Cowen shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

 

(d)                                             Material Changes.  Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

 

(e)                                              Company Counsel Legal Opinion.  Cowen shall have received the opinions of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

 

(f)                                               Cowen Counsel Legal Opinion.  Cowen shall have received from Goodwin Procter LLP, counsel for Cowen, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as Cowen may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for enabling them to pass upon such matters.

 

(g)                                              Comfort Letter.  Cowen shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(o).

 

(h)                                             Representation Certificate.  Cowen shall have received the certificates required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificates are required pursuant to Section 7(m).

 

(i)                                                 Secretary’s Certificate.  On or prior to the First Delivery Date, Cowen shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate Secretary or Assistant Secretary (if authorized by the bylaws of the Company or resolutions of the board of directors of the Company), in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel.

 

26


 

(j)                                                No Suspension.  Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on Nasdaq.

 

(k)                                             Other Materials.  On each date on which the Company is required to deliver certificates pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to Cowen such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as Cowen may have reasonably requested.  All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof.  The Company will furnish Cowen with such conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as Cowen shall have reasonably requested.

 

(l)                                                 Securities Act Filings Made.  All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

 

(m)                                         Approval for Listing.  The Placement Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.

 

(n)                                             No Termination Event.  There shall not have occurred any event that would permit Cowen to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

 

9.                                      Indemnification and Contribution.

 

(a)                                             Company Indemnification.  The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless Cowen, the directors, officers, partners, employees and agents of Cowen and each person, if any, who (i) controls Cowen within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with Cowen (a “Cowen Affiliate”) from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including, but not limited to, any and all reasonable investigative, legal and other expenses incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with Section 9(c)) of, any action, suit or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party, or otherwise, or any claim asserted), as and when incurred, to which Cowen, or any such person, may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company in connection with this Agreement or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Common Stock under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated in it or necessary to make the statements in it not misleading in light of the

 

27


 

circumstances under which they were made, or (z) any breach by the Company of any of its representations, warranties and agreements contained in this Agreement; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused directly or indirectly by an untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission, made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information relating to Cowen and furnished to the Company by Cowen expressly for inclusion in the Registration Statement or Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus.  This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

 

(b)                                             Cowen Indemnification.  Cowen agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company that signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company from and against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as and when incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with written information relating to Cowen and furnished to the Company by Cowen expressly for inclusion in the Registration Statement or Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus.  This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that Cowen might otherwise have.

 

(c)                                              Procedure.  Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party in writing of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the failure to so notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture or material impairment of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party.  If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense.  The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other

 

28


 

indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties.  It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties.  All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred after the indemnifying party receives a written invoice relating to fees, disbursements and other charges.  An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent.  No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising or that may arise out of such claim, action or proceeding.

 

(d)                                             Contribution.  In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or Cowen, the Company and Cowen will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than Cowen, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and Cowen may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other.  The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by Cowen (before deducting expenses) from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company.  If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and Cowen, on the other, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering.  Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or Cowen, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge,

 

29


 

access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission.  The Company and Cowen agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein.  The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(d) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 9(c).  Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(d), Cowen shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation.  For purposes of this Section 9(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of Cowen, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer and director of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof.  Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(d), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(d) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought.  Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c), no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c).

 

10.                               Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery.  The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of Cowen, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

 

11.                               Termination.

 

(a)                                             Cowen shall have the right by giving written notice as hereinafter specified at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect has occurred that, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen, may materially impair the ability of Cowen to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; provided, however, in the case of any failure of the Company to deliver (or cause another person to deliver) any certification, opinion, or letter required under Sections 7(m), 7(n), or 7(o), Cowen’s right to terminate shall not arise unless such failure to deliver (or cause to be delivered) continues for more than thirty

 

30


 

(30) days from the date such delivery was required; or (iii) any other condition of Cowen’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled; provided, however, Cowen’s right to terminate pursuant to this Section 11(a)(iii) shall not arise unless such condition, if capable of being fulfilled, is not fulfilled within ten (10) days after the date the Company is provided with written notice by Cowen that such condition has not been fulfilled, or (iv), any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred.  Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g) (Expenses), Section 9 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 10 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 16 (Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction) and Section 17 (Waiver of Jury Trial) shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.  If Cowen elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), Cowen shall provide the required written notice as specified in Section 12 (Notices).

 

(b)                                             The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement.  Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(c)                                              Cowen shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days written notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement.  Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(d)                                             Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through Cowen on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

 

(e)                                              This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.  Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not have any liability to Cowen for any discount, commission or other compensation with respect to any Placement Shares not sold through Cowen pursuant to this Agreement.

 

(f)                                               Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by Cowen or the Company, as the case may be.  If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

 

31


 

(g)                                              The Sales Agreement, dated as of October 13, 2017, by and between the Company and Cowen (the “Prior Sales Agreement”) is hereby terminated on the date hereof by mutual agreement of the Company and Cowen in accordance with Section 11(e) of the Prior Sales Agreement, provided that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 of the Prior Sales Agreement shall remain in full force and effect.

 

12.                               Notices.  All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to Cowen, shall be delivered to Cowen at Cowen and Company, LLC, 599 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10022, fax no. 646-562-1124, Attention:  General Counsel, with a copy to Goodwin Procter LLP, fax no. 212-355-3333, Attention: Edwin O’Connor; or if sent to the Company, shall be delivered to Albireo Pharma, Inc., 10 Post Office Square, Suite 502 South, Boston, MA 02109, Attention: Chief Financial Officer, email: simon.harford@albireopharma.com, with a copy to jason.duncan@albireopharma.com and to Mintz, Levin, Cohn, Ferris, Glovsky and Popeo P.C., fax no. 617-542-2241, Attention: Megan N. Gates.  Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose.  Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day (as defined below), or, if such day is not a Business Day on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid).  For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

 

13.                               Successors and Assigns.  This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and Cowen and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 9. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party.  Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement.  Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that Cowen may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate of Cowen without obtaining the Company’s consent so long as such affiliate is a registered broker-dealer.

 

14.                               Adjustments for Share Splits.  The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share consolidation, stock split, stock dividend, recapitalization or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

 

15.                               Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability.  This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter

 

32


 

hereof.  Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and Cowen.  In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement.

 

16.                               Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction.  This Agreement shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York without regard to the principles of conflicts of laws.  Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any transaction contemplated hereby, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper.  Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof.  Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

 

17.                               Waiver of Jury Trial.  The Company and Cowen each hereby irrevocably waives any right it may have to a trial by jury in respect of any claim based upon or arising out of this Agreement or any transaction contemplated hereby.

 

18.                               Absence of Fiduciary RelationshipThe Company acknowledges and agrees that:

 

(a)                                             Cowen has been retained solely to act as sales agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares and that no fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship between the Company and Cowen has been created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether Cowen has advised or is advising the Company on other matters;

 

(b)                                             the Company is capable of evaluating and understanding and understands and accepts the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

 

(c)                                              the Company has been advised that Cowen and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that Cowen has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship; and

 

(d)                                             the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against Cowen for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in

 

33


 

connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and agrees that Cowen shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders, partners, employees or creditors of the Company.

 

19.                               Counterparts.  This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument.  Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission.

 

20.                               Definitions.  As used in this Agreement, the following terms have the respective meanings set forth below:

 

(a)                                               Applicable Time” means each of the date of this Agreement, each Representation Date, the date on which a Placement Notice is given, and any date on which Placement Shares are sold hereunder.

 

(b)                                               subsidiary” has the meaning set forth in Rule 405 under the Securities Act.

 

21.                               Headings; Construction.  The section and exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.  Each reference in this Agreement to any Section or Schedule shall be to such Section or Schedule of this Agreement, unless the context indicates otherwise.

 

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

 

34


 

If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and Cowen, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and Cowen.

 

 

Very truly yours,

 

 

 

COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC

 

 

 

 

By:

/s/ George Milstein

 

 

Name: George Milstein

 

 

Title: Managing Director

 

 

 

 

ACCEPTED as of the date first-above written:

 

 

 

ALBIREO PHARMA, INC.

 

 

 

 

By:

/s/ Ronald Cooper

 

Name:

Ronald Cooper

 

Title:

President and Chief Executive Officer

 

[Signature Page to Sales Agreement]

 


 

SCHEDULE 1

 

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From:                                       [                                 ]

Cc:                                                     [                                 ]

To:                                                     [                                 ]

Subject:                           Cowen at the Market Offering—Placement Notice

 

Gentlemen:

 

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement between Albireo Pharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”) dated March 6, 2019 (the “Agreement”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that Cowen sell up to [  ] shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, at a minimum market price of $[     ] per share.  Sales should begin on the date of this Notice and shall continue until [DATE] [all shares are sold] [the aggregate sales price of the shares reaches $[   ]].

 

[The Company may include such other sales parameters as it deems appropriate]

 


 

SCHEDULE 2

 

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

 

Ronald H.W. Cooper

 

President and Chief Executive Officer

Simon Harford

 

Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer

Jason Duncan

 

General Counsel and Secretary

 

Cowen and Company, LLC

 

Michael Murphy

 

Director

William Follis

 

Director

 


 

SCHEDULE 3

 

Compensation

 

Cowen shall be paid compensation equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Placement Shares pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.

 


 

SCHEDULE 4

 

Significant Subsidiaries

 

Albireo AB, a company incorporated in Sweden

 

Elobix AB, a company incorporated in Sweden

 

Albireo Security Corp., a Massachusetts security corporation

 

2




Exhibit 4.7

 

ALBIREO PHARMA, INC.

 

Issuer

 

AND

 

[                    ] Trustee

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of [                    ]

 

Senior Debt Securities

 


 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE (1)

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as Amended

 

Section of
Indenture

310(a).

 

7.09

310(b).

 

7.08

7.10

310(c).

 

Inapplicable

311(a).

 

7.13(a)

311(b).

 

7.13(b)

311(c).

 

Inapplicable

312(a)

 

5.02(a)

312(b).

 

5.02(b)

312(c).

 

5.02(c)

313(a).

 

5.04(a)

313(b).

 

5.04(a)

313(c).

 

5.04(a)

5.04(b)

313(d).

 

5.04(b)

314(a).

 

5.03

314(b).

 

Inapplicable

314(c).

 

13.06

314(d).

 

Inapplicable

314(e).

 

13.06

314(f).

 

Inapplicable

315(a).

 

7.01(a)

7.02

315(b).

 

6.07

315(c).

 

7.01

315(d).

 

7.01(b)

7.01(c)

315(e).

 

6.07

316(a).

 

6.06

8.04

316(b).

 

6.04

316(c).

 

8.01

317(a).

 

6.02

317(b).

 

4.03

318(a).

 

13.08

 


(1)                     This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS (2)

 

 

Page

 

 

ARTICLE I                                DEFINITIONS

1

 

 

SECTION 1.01

Definitions of Terms

1

 

 

 

ARTICLE II                           ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

3

 

 

SECTION 2.01

Designation and Terms of Securities

3

SECTION 2.02

Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate

5

SECTION 2.03

Denominations: Provisions for Payment

5

SECTION 2.04

Execution and Authentications

6

SECTION 2.05

Registration of Transfer and Exchange

7

SECTION 2.06

Temporary Securities

7

SECTION 2.07

Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities

8

SECTION 2.08

Cancellation

8

SECTION 2.09

Benefits of Indenture

8

SECTION 2.10

Authenticating Agent

9

SECTION 2.11

Global Securities

9

 

 

 

ARTICLE III                      REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

10

 

 

SECTION 3.01

Redemption

10

SECTION 3.02

Notice of Redemption

10

SECTION 3.03

Payment Upon Redemption

11

SECTION 3.04

Sinking Fund

11

SECTION 3.05

Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities

11

SECTION 3.06

Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund

12

 

 

 

ARTICLE IV                       COVENANTS

12

 

 

SECTION 4.01

Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest

12

SECTION 4.02

Maintenance of Office or Agency

12

SECTION 4.03

Paying Agents

12

SECTION 4.04

Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee

13

SECTION 4.05

Compliance with Consolidation Provisions

13

 

 

 

ARTICLE V                            SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

13

 

 

SECTION 5.01

Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders

13

SECTION 5.02

Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders

13

SECTION 5.03

Reports by the Company

14

SECTION 5.04

Reports by the Trustee

14

 

 

 

ARTICLE VI                       REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

14

 

 

SECTION 6.01

Events of Default

14

SECTION 6.02

Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee

16

SECTION 6.03

Application of Moneys Collected

17

SECTION 6.04

Limitation on Suits

17

SECTION 6.05

Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver

18

SECTION 6.06

Control by Securityholders

18

SECTION 6.07

Undertaking to Pay Costs

18

 

 

 

ARTICLE VII                  CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

19

 

 

SECTION 7.01

Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee

19

 

i


 

SECTION 7.02

Certain Rights of Trustee

20

SECTION 7.03

Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities

21

SECTION 7.04

May Hold Securities

21

SECTION 7.05

Moneys Held in Trust

21

SECTION 7.06

Compensation and Reimbursement

21

SECTION 7.07

Reliance on Officers’ Certificate

21

SECTION 7.08

Disqualification; Conflicting Interests

22

SECTION 7.09

Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility

22

SECTION 7.10

Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor

22

SECTION 7.11

Acceptance of Appointment By Successor

23

SECTION 7.12

Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business

24

SECTION 7.13

Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company

24

 

 

 

ARTICLE VIII             CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

24

 

 

SECTION 8.01

Evidence of Action by Securityholders

24

SECTION 8.02

Proof of Execution by Securityholders

25

SECTION 8.03

Who May be Deemed Owners

25

SECTION 8.04

Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded

25

SECTION 8.05

Actions Binding on Future Securityholders

25

SECTION 8.06

Purposes for Which Meetings May Be Called

26

SECTION 8.07

Call Notice and Place of Meetings

26

SECTION 8.08

Persons Entitled To Vote at Meetings

26

SECTION 8.09

Quorum; Action

26

SECTION 8.10

Determination of Voting Rights; Conduct and Adjournment of Meetings

27

SECTION 8.11

Counting Votes and Recording Action of Meetings

27

 

 

 

ARTICLE IX                       SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

27

 

 

SECTION 9.01

Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders

27

SECTION 9.02

Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders

28

SECTION 9.03

Effect of Supplemental Indentures

29

SECTION 9.04

Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures

29

SECTION 9.05

Execution of Supplemental Indentures

29

 

 

 

ARTICLE X                            SUCCESSOR ENTITY

29

 

 

SECTION 10.01

Company May Consolidate, Etc.

29

SECTION 10.02

Successor Entity Substituted

30

SECTION 10.03

Evidence of Consolidation, Etc. to Trustee

30

 

 

 

ARTICLE XI                       SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

30

 

 

SECTION 11.01

Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture

30

SECTION 11.02

Discharge of Obligations

31

SECTION 11.03

Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust

31

SECTION 11.04

Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents

31

SECTION 11.05

Repayment to Company

31

 

 

 

ARTICLE XII                  IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS

31

 

 

SECTION 12.01

No Recourse

31

 

 

 

ARTICLE XIII             MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

32

 

 

SECTION 13.01

Effect on Successors and Assigns

32

SECTION 13.02

Actions by Successor

32

SECTION 13.03

Surrender of Company Powers

32

SECTION 13.04

Notices

32

SECTION 13.05

Governing Law

32

SECTION 13.06

Treatment of Securities as Debt

32

 

ii


 

SECTION 13.07

Compliance Certificates and Opinions

32

SECTION 13.08

Payments on Business Days

33

SECTION 13.09

Conflict with Trust Indenture Act

33

SECTION 13.10

Counterparts

33

SECTION 13.11

Separability

33

SECTION 13.12

Assignment

33

 


(2)                     This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms and provisions.

 

iii


 

INDENTURE, dated as of [                           ], by and between Albireo Pharma, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [                           ], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

 

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

 

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

 

ARTICLE I

 

DEFINITIONS

 

SECTION 1.01  Definitions of Terms.

 

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

“Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed with respect to all or any series of the Securities by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

“Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

 

“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

 

“Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which Federal or State banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 

“Certificate” means a certificate signed by the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer or the principal accounting officer of the Company. The Certificate need not comply with the provisions of Section 13.07.

 

“Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

“Company” means the corporation named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor corporation shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor corporation.

 

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [                    ], except that whenever a provision herein refers to an office or agency of the Trustee in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, such office is located, at the date hereof, at [                         ].

 

“Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 


 

“Default” means an event which is, or after notice or lapse of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.

 

“Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series, for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or Section 2.11.

 

“Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

 

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

 

“Global Security” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with this Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

“Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are non-callable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended) as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

“herein,” “hereof” and “hereunder,” and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof.

 

“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

 

“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by the President or a Vice President and by the Chief Financial Officer, Vice President of Finance, the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Controller or an Assistant Controller or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of counsel, who may be counsel to the Company (and may include directors or employees of the Company) and which opinion is acceptable to the Trustee which acceptance shall not be unreasonably withheld.

 

“Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as in Article III provided, or provision satisfactory to the

 

2


 

Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

 

“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint-venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, estate, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

“Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security.

 

“Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer of the Trustee, including any vice president, assistant vice president, secretary, assistant secretary, the treasurer, any assistant treasurer, the managing director or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of such officer’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

 

“Securities” means the debt Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

“Security Register” has the meaning specified in Section 2.05.

 

“Security Registrar” has the meaning specified in Section 2.05.

 

“Securityholder,” “holder of Securities,” “registered holder,” or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security shall be registered in the Security Register.

 

“Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation at least a majority of whose outstanding Voting Stock shall at the time be owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person or by one or more of its Subsidiaries or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries, (ii) any general partnership, joint venture or similar entity, at least a majority of whose outstanding partnership or similar interests shall at the time be owned by such Person, or by one or more of its Subsidiaries, or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries and (iii) any limited partnership of which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a general partner.

 

“Trustee” means the Person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean such successor Trustee. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

 

“Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, subject to the provisions of Sections 9.01, 9.02, and 10.01, as in effect at the date of execution of this instrument; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act is amended after such date, Trust Indenture Act means, to the extent required by such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as so amended, or any successor statute.

 

“Voting Stock,” as applied to any Person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such Person having ordinary voting power for the election of a majority of the directors (or the equivalent) of such Person, other than shares, interests, participations or other equivalents having such power only by reason of the occurrence of a contingency.

 

ARTICLE II

 

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION,
REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

 

SECTION 2.01  Designation and Terms of Securities.

 

(a)                                 The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of a given series, there shall be established in or pursuant

 

3


 

to a Board Resolution of the Company, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

 

(1)                                 the title of the Security of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities);

 

(2)                                 the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series initially to be issued and any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

(3)                                 the currency or units based on or relating to currencies in which debt securities of such series are denominated and the currency or units in which principal or interest or both will or may be payable;

 

(4)                                 the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable and the place(s) of payment;

 

(5)                                 the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any;

 

(6)                                 the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates, the place(s) of payment, and the record date for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

(7)                                 the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods or to defer the payment of interest and the duration of such extension;

 

(8)                                 the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

(9)                                 the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in satisfaction of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(10)                          whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

(11)                          the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the Certificate of Authentication for such series;

 

(12)                          if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

(13)                          any and all other terms with respect to such series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the terms of this Indenture, as amended by any supplemental indenture) including any terms which may be required by or advisable under United States laws or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

 

(14)                          whether the Securities are issuable as a Global Security and, in such case, the identity of the Depositary for such series;

 

(15)                          whether the Securities will be convertible into shares of common stock or other securities of the Company and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible, including the conversion price and the conversion period;

 

4


 

(16)                          if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01; and

 

(17)                          any additional or different Events of Default or restrictive covenants provided for with respect to the Securities of the series.

 

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

 

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

 

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

 

SECTION 2.02  Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

 

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution of the Company and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any stock exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

 

SECTION 2.03  Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

 

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(12). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. The principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption thereof prior to maturity, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

 

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

 

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

 

(1)                                 The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money

 

5


 

equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register, not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been mailed as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date.

 

(2)                                 The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution of the Company or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities with respect to any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the last day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

 

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

 

SECTION 2.04  Execution and Authentications.

 

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by its President, or one of its Vice Presidents, or its Treasurer, or one of its Assistant Treasurers, or its Secretary, or one of its Assistant Secretaries, under its corporate seal attested by its Secretary or one of its Assistant Secretaries. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature. The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been a President or Vice President thereof, or of any Person who shall have been a Treasurer or Assistant Treasurer thereof, or of any Person who shall have been a Secretary or Assistant Secretary thereof, notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be the President or a Vice President, the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, of the Company. The seal of the Company may be in the form of a facsimile of such seal and may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Securities. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

 

A Security shall not be valid or obligatory for any purpose and shall not be entitled to any benefit under this Indenture, in each case, until authenticated with a certificate of authentication manually signed by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such certificate shall be conclusive evidence, and the only evidence, that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the Security is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture. At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by its President or any Vice President and its Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

 

6


 

In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the form and terms thereof have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

SECTION 2.05  Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

 

(a)                                 Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

(b)                                 The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, or such other location designated by the Company a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).

 

Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

 

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

 

(c)                                  No service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, Section 3.03(b) and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

 

(d)                                 The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

 

SECTION 2.06  Temporary Securities.

 

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of

 

7


 

which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

 

SECTION 2.07  Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

 

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

SECTION 2.08  Cancellation.

 

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, exchange or registration of transfer shall, if surrendered to the Company or any paying agent, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be cancelled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

SECTION 2.09  Benefits of Indenture.

 

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim

 

8


 

under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

 

SECTION 2.10  Authenticating Agent.

 

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by Federal or State authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

 

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

 

SECTION 2.11  Global Securities

 

(a)                                 If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that some or all of the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, the Outstanding Securities of such series which are to be issued as a Global Security, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

(b)                                 Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

(c)                                  If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee, upon receipt of an

 

9


 

Officers’ Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

ARTICLE III

 

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND
SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

 

SECTION 3.01  Redemption.

 

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

SECTION 3.02  Notice of Redemption.

 

(a)                                 In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with the right reserved so to do, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid, a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officers’ Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

 

Each such notice of redemption shall specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in whole or in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed. In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

(b)                                 If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 30 days’ notice in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000,

 

10


 

the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part. The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery of instructions signed on its behalf by its President or any Vice President, instruct the Trustee or any paying agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such paying agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such paying agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such paying agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such paying agent to give any notice by mail that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

 

SECTION 3.03  Payment Upon Redemption.

 

(a)                                 If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an interest payment date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

 

(b)                                 Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

SECTION 3.04  Sinking Fund.

 

The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

 

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.” If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

 

SECTION 3.05  Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

 

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series (other than any Securities previously called for redemption) and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

 

11


 

SECTION 3.06  Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

 

Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officers’ Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

 

ARTICLE IV

 

COVENANTS

 

SECTION 4.01  Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

 

The Company will duly and punctually pay or cause to be paid the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on the Securities of that series at the time and place and in the manner provided herein and established with respect to such Securities.

 

SECTION 4.02  Maintenance of Office or Agency.

 

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented or surrendered for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as herein above authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by its President or a Vice President and delivered to the trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands.

 

SECTION 4.03  Paying Agents.

 

(a)                                 If the Company shall appoint one or more paying agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such paying agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

 

(1)                                 that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

 

(2)                                 that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

 

(3)                                 that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such paying agent; and

 

(4)                                 that it will perform all other duties of paying agent as set forth in this Indenture.

 

(b)                                 If the Company shall act as its own paying agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on Securities of that

 

12


 

series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient with monies held by all other paying agents to pay such principal (and premium, if any) or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more paying agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the paying agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal (an premium, if any) or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such paying agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

 

(c)                                  Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any paying agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such paying agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such paying agent; and, upon such payment by any paying agent to the Trustee, such paying agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

 

SECTION 4.04  Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

 

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

 

SECTION 4.05  Compliance with Consolidation Provisions.

 

The Company will not, while any of the Securities remain Outstanding, consolidate with or merge into any other Person, in either case where the Company is not the survivor of such transaction, or sell or convey all or substantially all of its property to any other company unless the provisions of Article X hereof are complied with.

 

ARTICLE V

 

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

 

SECTION 5.01  Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

 

If the Company is not the Security Register, the Company will furnish or use reasonable efforts to cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) on each regular record date (as defined in Section 2.03) a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

 

SECTION 5.02  Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders.

 

(a)                                 The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity) and shall otherwise comply with Section 312(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(b)                                 The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

13


 

(c)                                  Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities.

 

SECTION 5.03  Reports by the Company.

 

(a)                                 The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee, within 15 days after the Company is required to file the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if the Company is not required to file information, documents or reports pursuant to either of such sections, then to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission, such of the supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports that may be required pursuant to Section 13 of the Exchange Act, in respect of a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange as may be prescribed from time to time in such rules and regulations; provided, however, the Company shall not be required to deliver to the Trustee any materials for which the Company has sought and received confidential treatment by the Commission. The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of Section 314(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(b)                                 The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from to time by the Commission, such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Company with the conditions and covenants provided for in this Indenture as may be required from time to time by such rules and regulations.

 

(c)                                  The Company covenants and agrees to transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, or reputable over-night delivery service that provides for evidence of receipt, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, within 30 days after the filing thereof with the Trustee, such summaries of any information, documents and reports required to be filed by the Company pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this Section as may be required by rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission.

 

SECTION 5.04  Reports by the Trustee.

 

(a)                                 The Trustee shall transmit to holders as provided in Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act such reports concerning the Trustee and its actions under this Indenture as may be required by Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act at the times and in the manner provided by the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(b)                                 A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each stock exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and, if required by Section 313 of the Trust Indenture Act, also with the Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any stock exchange.

 

ARTICLE VI

 

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

SECTION 6.01  Events of Default.

 

(a)                                 Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing:

 

(1)                                 the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid

 

14


 

extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

(2)                                 the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

(3)                                 the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

 

(4)                                 the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law (i) commences a voluntary case, (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case, (iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property or (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or

 

(5)                                 a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order under any Bankruptcy Law that (i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case, (ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company for all or substantially all of its property, or (iii) orders the liquidation of the Company, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 consecutive days.

 

(b)                                 In each and every such case, unless the principal of all the Securities of that series shall have already become due and payable, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal (or, if any Securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series pursuant to Section 2.01(a)(16)) of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all the Securities of that series to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable.

 

(c)                                  At any time after the principal of the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before a judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder (or, by action at a meeting of holders of the Securities of such series in accordance with Section 8.09, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding represented at such meeting), by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of (and premium, if any, on) any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration and (ii) any and all Events of Default under this Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal of (and premium, if any, on) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on Securities of that series that shall have become due solely because of such acceleration, shall have been remedied, cured or waived as provided in Section

 

15


 

6.06. No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

(d)                                 In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceedings, the Company, and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

SECTION 6.02  Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

(a)                                 The Company covenants that (1) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 Business Days, or (2) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise, then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have been become due and payable on all such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal (and premium, if any) and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate per annum expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

 

(b)                                 If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

 

(c)                                  In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affected the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under this Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

 

(d)                                 All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding

 

16


 

relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

 

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

 

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

 

SECTION 6.03  Application of Moneys Collected.

 

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST:                                To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and

 

SECOND:                 To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, respectively.

 

SECTION 6.04  Limitation on Suits.

 

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as trustee hereunder; (iii) such holder or holders shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby; and (iv) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 60 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series (or such amount as shall have acted at a meeting of the holders of Securities of such series pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture) do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request; provided, however, that no one or more of such holders may use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another holder or to obtain preference or priority over another holder.

 

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary, any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or

 

17


 

seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

SECTION 6.05  Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

(a)                                 Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

 

(b)                                 No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or on acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

 

SECTION 6.06  Control by Securityholders.

 

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.01, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of Securities of any other series at the time Outstanding determined in accordance with Section 8.01. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or Officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability. The holders either (a) through the written consent of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding or (b) by action at a meeting of holders of the Securities of such series in accordance with Section 8.09, by the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding represented at such meeting, may on behalf of the holders of all of the Securities of such series waive any past default in the performance of any of the covenants contained herein or established pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due by the terms of such Securities otherwise than by acceleration (unless such default has been cured and a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest and principal and any premium has been deposited with the Trustee (in accordance with Section 6.01(c)) and except in respect a provision hereof which, under Section 9.02, cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of each Outstanding Security affected; provided however that this Section shall not limit the right of holders of Securities of a series to rescind and annul any acceleration as set forth in Section 6.01. Upon any such waiver, the default covered thereby shall be deemed to be cured for all purposes of this Indenture and the Company, the Trustee and the holders of the Securities of such series shall be restored to their former positions and rights hereunder, respectively; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon. The provisions which otherwise would be automatically deemed to be contained in this Indenture pursuant to Section (316)(a)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act are hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture, except to the extent such provisions are expressly included herein.

 

SECTION 6.07  Undertaking to Pay Costs.

 

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in

 

18


 

such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

ARTICLE VII

 

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

SECTION 7.01  Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

 

(a)                                 The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs.

 

(b)                                 No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(1)                                 prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

 

(i)                                     the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

 

(ii)                                  in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirement of this Indenture;

 

(2)                                 the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee, was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

(3)                                 the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series; and

 

(4)                                 None of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if there is reasonable ground

 

19


 

for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.

 

SECTION 7.02  Certain Rights of Trustee.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

 

(a)                                 The Trustee may rely and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

(b)                                 Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company, by the President or any Vice President and by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer thereof (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

 

(c)                                  The Trustee may consult with counsel and the written advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

 

(d)                                 The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders, pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee reasonable security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived) to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent man would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his own affairs;

 

(e)                                  The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

(f)                                   The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents, unless requested in writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding. The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand; and

 

(g)                                  The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder.

 

20


 

SECTION 7.03  Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities.

 

(a)                                 The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same.

 

(b)                                 The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

 

(c)                                  The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any paying agent other than the Trustee.

 

SECTION 7.04  May Hold Securities.

 

The Trustee or any paying agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, paying agent or Security Registrar.

 

SECTION 7.05  Moneys Held in Trust.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.

 

SECTION 7.06  Compensation and Reimbursement.

 

(a)                                 The Company covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust), as the Company, and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing, for all services rendered by it in the execution of the trusts hereby created and in the exercise and performance of any of the powers and duties hereunder of the Trustee, and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Company will pay or reimburse the Trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all Persons not regularly in its employ) except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may arise from its negligence or bad faith. The Company also covenants to indemnify the Trustee (and its officers, agents, directors and employees) for, and to hold it harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee and arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this trust, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim of liability in the premises.

 

(b)                                 The obligations of the Company under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder. Such additional indebtedness shall be secured by a lien prior to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the holders of particular Securities.

 

SECTION 7.07  Reliance on Officers’ Certificate.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officers’ Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the

 

21


 

absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

SECTION 7.08  Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.

 

If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

SECTION 7.09  Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.

 

There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any State or Territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least 50 million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by Federal, State, Territorial, or District of Columbia authority. If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee. In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.10.

 

SECTION 7.10  Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.

 

(a)                                 The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed, may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and by transmitting notice of resignation by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders of such series, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

(b)                                 In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:

 

(1)                                 the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or

 

(2)                                 the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or

 

(3)                                 the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation, then, in any such case, the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the

 

22


 

successor trustee, or, unless the Trustee’s duty to resign is stayed as provided herein, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

(c)                                  The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.

 

(d)                                 Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.11.

 

(e)                                  Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.

 

SECTION 7.11  Acceptance of Appointment By Successor.

 

(a)                                 In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

 

(b)                                 In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which (1) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, (2) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (3) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates;

 

23


 

but, on request of the Company or any successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates.

 

(c)                                  Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.

 

(d)                                 No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

 

(e)                                  Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the Company shall transmit notice of the succession of such trustee hereunder by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. If the Company fails to transmit such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be transmitted at the expense of the Company.

 

SECTION 7.12  Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.

 

Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 7.08 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.09, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

 

SECTION 7.13  Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.

 

The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

 

ARTICLE VIII

 

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

 

SECTION 8.01  Evidence of Action by Securityholders.

 

Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such holders of Securities of that series in Person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing.

 

If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officers’ Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that

 

24


 

purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.

 

SECTION 8.02  Proof of Execution by Securityholders.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his agent or proxy and proof of the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:

 

(a)                                 The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.

 

(b)                                 The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.

 

(c)                                  The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.

 

SECTION 8.03  Who May be Deemed Owners.

 

Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any paying agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Company as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, premium, if any, and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any paying agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

 

SECTION 8.04  Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.

 

In determining whether the holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent of waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor. In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.

 

SECTION 8.05  Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.

 

At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 8.01, of the taking of any action by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any holder of a Security of that series that is shown by the evidence to be included in the Securities the holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice with the Trustee, and upon proof of holding as provided in Section 8.02, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid any such action taken by the holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such holder and upon all future holders and owners of such Security, and of any Security issued in exchange therefor, on registration of transfer thereof or in place thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon such Security. Any action taken by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Company, the Trustee and the holders of all the Securities of that series.

 

25


 

SECTION 8.06  Purposes for Which Meetings May Be Called.

 

A meeting of holders of any series of Securities may be called at any time and from time to time pursuant to this Article to make, give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be made, given or taken by holders of such series of Securities.

 

Notwithstanding anything contained in this Article VIII, the Trustee may, during the pendency of a Default or an Event of Default, call a meeting of holders of any series of Securities in accordance with its standard practices.

 

SECTION 8.07  Call Notice and Place of Meetings.

 

(a)                                 The Trustee may at any time call a meeting of holders of any series of Securities for any purpose specified in Section 8.06 hereof, to be held at such time and at such place in The City of New York or Boston, Massachusetts. Notice of every meeting of holders of any series of Securities, setting forth the time and the place of such meeting, in general terms the action proposed to be taken at such meeting and the percentage of the principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series which shall constitute a quorum at such meeting, shall be given, in the manner provided in Section 13.04 hereof, not less than 21 nor more than 180 days prior to the date fixed for the meeting to holders of Outstanding Securities of such series.

 

(b)                                 In case at any time the Company, pursuant to a Board Resolution, or the holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series shall have requested the Trustee to call a meeting of the holders of Securities of such series for any purpose specified in Section 8.06 hereof, by written request setting forth in reasonable detail the action proposed to be taken at the meeting, and the Trustee shall not have made the first publication of the notice of such meeting within 21 days after receipt of such request or shall not thereafter proceed to cause the meeting to be held as provided herein, then the Company or the holders of Securities of such series in the amount specified, as the case may be, may determine the time and the place in The City of New York or Boston, Massachusetts for such meeting and may call such meeting for such purposes by giving notice thereof as provided in paragraph (a) of this Section.

 

SECTION 8.08  Persons Entitled To Vote at Meetings.

 

To be entitled to vote at any meeting of holders of Securities of a given series, a Person shall be (a) a holder of one or more Outstanding Securities of such series or (b) a Person appointed by an instrument in writing as proxy for a holder or holders of one or more Outstanding Securities of such series by such holder or holders. The only Persons who shall be entitled to be present or to speak at any meeting of holders shall be the Persons entitled to vote at such meeting and their counsel, any representatives of the Trustee and its counsel and any representatives of the Company and its counsel.

 

SECTION 8.09  Quorum; Action.

 

The Persons entitled to vote a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of a given series shall constitute a quorum with respect to a meeting of holders of Outstanding Securities of such series. In the absence of a quorum within 30 minutes of the time appointed for any such meeting, the meeting shall, if convened at the request of holders of Securities of such series, be dissolved. In any other case, the meeting may be adjourned for a period of not less than 10 days as determined by the chairman of the meeting prior to the adjournment of such meeting. In the absence of a quorum at any such adjourned meeting, such adjourned meeting may be further adjourned for a period of not less than 10 days as determined by the chairman of the meeting prior to the adjournment of such adjourned meeting. Notice of the reconvening of any adjourned meeting shall be given as provided in Section 8.07(a) hereof, except that such notice need be given only once and not less than five days prior to the date on which the meeting is scheduled to be reconvened.

 

At a meeting or an adjourned meeting duly reconvened and at which a quorum is present as aforesaid, any resolution and all matters (except as limited by the proviso to the first paragraph of Section 9.02 hereof) shall be effectively passed and decided if passed or decided by the Persons entitled to vote not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of Outstanding Securities of a series represented and voting at such meeting with respect to a meeting of holders of Outstanding Securities of such series.

 

26


 

Any resolution passed or decisions taken at any meeting of holders of Securities duly held in accordance with this Section shall be binding on all the holders of Securities of such series, whether or not present or represented at the meeting.

 

SECTION 8.10  Determination of Voting Rights; Conduct and Adjournment of Meetings.

 

(a)                                 Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Indenture, the Trustee may make such reasonable regulations as it may deem advisable for any meeting of holders of Securities in regard to proof of the holding of Securities and of the appointment of proxies and in regard to the appointment and duties of inspectors of votes, the submission and examination of proxies, certificates and other evidence of the right to vote, and such other matters concerning the conduct of the meeting as it shall deem appropriate.

 

(b)                                 The Trustee shall, by an instrument in writing, appoint a temporary chairman (which may be the Trustee) of the meeting, unless the meeting shall have been called by the Company or by holders of Securities of a given series as provided in Section 8.07(b) hereof, in which case the Company or the holders of Securities of such series calling the meeting, as the case may be, shall in like manner appoint a temporary chairman. A permanent chairman and a permanent secretary of the meeting shall be elected by vote of the Persons entitled to vote a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series represented at the meeting.

 

(c)                                  At any meeting, each holder of a Security of the series in respect of which such meeting is being held or proxy shall be entitled to one vote for each $1,000 principal amount of Securities of such series held or represented by him; provided, however, that no vote shall be cast or counted at any meeting in respect of any Security of such series challenged as not Outstanding and ruled by the chairman of the meeting to be not Outstanding. The chairman of the meeting shall have no right to vote, except as a holder of a Security of such series or proxy.

 

(d)                                 Any meeting of holders of Securities duly called pursuant to Section 8.07 hereof at which a quorum is present may be adjourned from time to time by Persons entitled to vote a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the series in respect of which such meeting is being held represented at the meeting, and the meeting may be held as so adjourned without further notice.

 

SECTION 8.11  Counting Votes and Recording Action of Meetings.

 

The vote upon any resolution submitted to any meeting of holders of Securities of a given series shall be by written ballots on which shall be subscribed the signatures of the holders of Securities of such series or of their representatives by proxy and the principal amounts and serial numbers of the Outstanding Securities of such series held or represented by them. The permanent chairman of the meeting shall appoint two inspectors of votes who shall count all votes cast at the meeting for or against any resolution and who shall make and file with the secretary of the meeting their verified written reports in duplicate of all votes cast at the meeting. A record, at least in duplicate, of the proceedings of each meeting of holders of Securities of such series shall be prepared by the secretary of the meeting and there shall be attached to said record the original reports of the inspectors of votes on any vote by ballot taken thereat and affidavits by one or more Persons having knowledge of the facts setting forth a copy of the notice of the meeting and showing that said notice was given as provided in Section 8.07 hereof and, if applicable, Section 8.09 hereof. Each copy shall be signed and verified by the affidavits of the permanent chairman and secretary of the meeting and one such copy shall be delivered to the Company and another to the Trustee to be preserved by the Trustee, the latter to have attached thereto the ballots voted at the meeting. Any record so signed and verified shall be conclusive evidence of the matters therein stated.

 

ARTICLE IX

 

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

 

SECTION 9.01  Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders.

 

In addition to any supplemental indenture otherwise authorized by this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which

 

27


 

shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect), without the consent of the Securityholders, for one or more of the following purposes:

 

(a)                                 cure any ambiguity, correct or supplement any provision herein which may be inconsistent with any other provision herein or which is otherwise defective, or make any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under this Indenture which the Company and the Trustee may deem necessary or desirable and which shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture;

 

(b)                                 to comply with Article X;