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Table of Contents

Stock

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2020

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from            to           .

Commission File Number 001-33451

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

s

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

    

90-0136863
(IRS Employer Identification No.)

10 Post Office Square, Suite 1000, Boston, MA

(Address of principal executive offices)

02109
(Zip code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (857) 254-5555

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock

ALBO

The Nasdaq Capital Market

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes   No

As of July 30, 2020, there were 14,990,711 shares of Common Stock, $0.01 par value per share, outstanding.

Table of Contents

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

     

Page

PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION

3

Item 1. Financial Statements

6

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets (unaudited) at June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019

6

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations (unaudited) for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2019

7

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss (unaudited) for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2019

8

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (unaudited) for the Three and Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2019

9

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (unaudited) for the Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and 2019

10

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)

11

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

18

Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

30

Item 4. Controls and Procedures

30

PART II — OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

31

Item 1A. Risk Factors

31

Item 6. Exhibits

32

Signatures

33

All brand names, trademarks or service marks appearing in this quarterly report are the property of their respective owners. Registrant’s use or display of another party’s trademark, service mark, trade dress or product in this quarterly report is not intended to, and does not, imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of, the registrant by such other party.

2

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This quarterly report includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, which we refer to as the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which we refer to as the Exchange Act, that relate to future events or to our future operations or financial performance. Any forward-looking statement involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statement. Forward-looking statements include statements, other than statements of historical fact, about, among other things:

the progress, number, scope, cost, duration or results of our development activities, nonclinical studies and clinical trials of odevixibat (formerly known as A4250), elobixibat, A3384 or any of our other product candidates or programs, such as the target indication(s) for development or approval, the size, design, population, conduct, cost, objective or endpoints of any clinical trial, or the timing for initiation or completion of or availability of results from any clinical trial (including our Phase 2 trial of elobixibat in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH; PEDFIC 1, our Phase 3 clinical trial of odevixibat in patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, or PFIC; BOLD, our pivotal clinical trial of odevixibat in patients with biliary atresia or our planned pivotal trial of odevixibat in Alagille syndrome, or ALGS) for submission or approval of any regulatory filing, access to the Expanded Access Program (EAP) for odevixibat, or meetings with regulatory authorities;
the potential benefits that may be derived from any of our product candidates;
the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our existing product candidates, any product candidates that we may develop, and any related restrictions, limitations, or warnings in the label of any approved product candidates;
any payment that EA Pharma Co., Ltd., or EA Pharma, may make to us or any other action or decision that EA Pharma may make concerning elobixibat or our business relationship;
the potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business;
our future operations, financial position, revenues, costs, expenses, uses of cash, capital requirements, our need for additional financing or the period for which our existing cash resources will be sufficient to meet our operating requirements; or
our strategies, prospects, plans, expectations, forecasts or objectives.

Words such as, but not limited to, “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “forecast,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “targets,” “likely,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” “scheduled” and similar expressions or phrases, or the negative of those expressions or phrases, are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. Although we believe that we have a reasonable basis for each forward-looking statement contained in this report, we caution you that these statements are based on our estimates or projections of the future that are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, level of activity, performance, experience or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement. Actual results, level of activity, performance, experience or achievements may differ materially from those expressed or implied by any forward-looking statement as a result of various important factors, including our critical accounting policies and risks and uncertainties relating, among other things, to:

the design, size, duration and endpoints for, and results from, PEDFIC 1, our Phase 3 clinical trial of odevixibat in patients with PFIC or our related extension study, or any other trials that will be required to

3

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obtain marketing approval for odevixibat to treat patients with PFIC, biliary atresia or any other pediatric cholestatic liver disease, for elobixibat to treat NASH, or for A3384 as a potential treatment for gastrointestinal diseases or disorders;
whether favorable findings from clinical trials of  odevixibat to date, including findings in indications other than PFIC, will be predictive of results from future clinical trials, including the trials comprising our Phase 3 PFIC program for odevixibat, pivotal trial of odevixibat in biliary atresia and planned pivotal trial of odevixibat in Alagille syndrome, or ALGS; whether either or both of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, and European Medicines Agency, or EMA, will determine that the primary endpoint and treatment duration of the double blind Phase 3 trial in patients with PFIC are sufficient, even if such primary endpoint is met with statistical significance, to support approval of odevixibat in the United States, or U.S., or the European Union, or E.U., to treat PFIC, a symptom of PFIC, a specific PFIC subtype(s) or otherwise;
the outcome and interpretation by regulatory authorities of an ongoing third-party study pooling and analyzing long-term PFIC patient data;
the timing for initiation or completion of, or for availability of data from, the trials comprising the Phase 3 PFIC and biliary atresia programs or the planned pivotal trial in ALGS for odevixibat, and the outcomes of such trials;
delays or other challenges in the recruitment of patients for the pivotal trial of odevixibat in biliary atresia and the planned pivotal trial of odevixibat in ALGS;
whether odevixibat will meet the criteria to receive a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher from the FDA when applicable, whether a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher that we may receive in the future for odevixibat, if any, will be valuable to us, and, if necessary, whether the rare pediatric disease priority review voucher program will be renewed beyond 2020;
the COVID-19 pandemic, which may negatively impact the conduct of, and the timing of initiation, enrollment, completion and reporting with respect to, our clinical trials; negatively impact the supply of drug product for our clinical and preclinical programs; and/or result in other adverse impacts on our business;
the competitive environment and commercial opportunity for a potential treatment for PFIC and other orphan pediatric cholestatic liver diseases;
the conduct and results of clinical trials and nonclinical studies and assessments of odevixibat, elobixibat, A3384 or any of our other product candidates and programs, including the performance of third parties engaged to execute them and difficulties or delays in patient enrollment and data analysis;
the medical benefit that may be derived from odevixibat, elobixibat, A3384 or any of our other product candidates;
the extent to which our agreement with EA Pharma for elobixibat generates nondilutive income for us;
the timing and success of submission, acceptance and approval of regulatory filings and any related restrictions, limitations or warnings in the label of any approved product candidates;
the significant control or influence that EA Pharma has over the commercialization of elobixibat in Japan and the development and commercialization of elobixibat in EA Pharma’s other licensed territories;
whether we elect to seek and, if so, our ability to establish a license or other partnering transaction with a third party for elobixibat in the United States or Europe;

4

Table of Contents

whether findings from nonclinical studies and clinical trials of IBAT inhibitors will be predictive of future clinical success for a product candidate of ours in the treatment of NASH;
the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, costs, future revenues, uses of cash and capital requirements;
our ability to obtain additional financing on reasonable terms, or at all;
our ability to establish additional licensing, collaboration or similar arrangements on favorable terms and our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;
the success of competing third-party products or product candidates;
our ability to successfully commercialize any approved product candidates, including their rate and degree of market acceptance;
whether we are able to maintain compliance with the terms and conditions of our loan and security agreement with Hercules Capital, Inc.;
our ability to expand and protect our intellectual property estate;
regulatory developments in the United States and other countries;
the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting;
the performance of our third-party suppliers, manufacturers and contract research organizations and our ability to obtain alternative sources of raw materials;
our ability to attract and retain key personnel; and
our ability to comply with regulatory requirements relating to our business, and the costs of compliance with those requirements, including those on data privacy and security.

These and other risks and uncertainties are described in greater detail under the caption “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of Part I of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, in Item 1A of Part II of this quarterly report, and in other filings that we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. As a result of the risks and uncertainties, the results or events indicated by the forward-looking statements may not occur. We caution you not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statement.

In addition, any forward-looking statement in this quarterly report represents our views only as of the filing date of this quarterly report and should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments may cause our views to change. Although we may elect to update these forward-looking statements publicly at some point in the future, we specifically disclaim any obligation to do so, except as required by applicable law. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.

5

Table of Contents

PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets

(in thousands, except share data)

(unaudited)

    

June 30, 

    

December 31,

2020

2019

Assets

Current assets:

Cash and cash equivalents

$

152,020

$

131,843

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

7,967

 

9,956

Total current assets

 

159,987

 

141,799

Property and equipment, net

597

597

Goodwill

 

17,260

 

17,260

Other assets

 

6,161

 

5,413

Total assets

$

184,005

$

165,069

Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity

Current liabilities:

Accounts payable

$

4,734

$

4,785

Accrued expenses

 

11,752

 

13,486

Other current liabilities

 

732

 

653

Total current liabilities

 

17,218

 

18,924

Liability related to sale of future royalties

64,351

48,714

Note payable, net of discount

9,400

Other long-term liabilities

3,916

4,270

Total liabilities

 

94,885

 

71,908

Stockholders’ Equity:

Common stock, $0.01 par value per share — 30,000,000 authorized at June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019; 14,989,021 and 12,749,443 issued and outstanding at June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively

 

149

 

127

Additional paid-in capital

 

294,075

 

245,769

Accumulated other comprehensive income

 

6,174

 

6,452

Accumulated deficit

 

(211,278)

 

(159,187)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

89,120

 

93,161

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

$

184,005

$

165,069

See accompanying notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

6

Table of Contents

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

(unaudited)

    

Three Months Ended June 30, 

    

Six Months Ended June 30,

    

2020

    

2019

    

2020

    

2019

Revenue

$

1,912

$

1,250

$

3,461

$

1,820

Operating expenses:

Research and development

 

18,397

 

11,034

 

34,527

 

19,363

General and administrative

 

8,474

 

5,485

 

16,627

 

10,778

Other operating (income) expense, net

 

(6,744)

 

8

 

72

 

2,304

Total operating expenses

 

20,127

 

16,527

 

51,226

 

32,445

Operating loss

 

(18,215)

 

(15,277)

 

(47,765)

 

(30,625)

Interest expense, net

 

(2,388)

 

(1,351)

 

(4,326)

 

(2,660)

Net loss

$

(20,603)

$

(16,628)

$

(52,091)

$

(33,285)

Net loss per share attributable to holders of common stock:

Net loss per common share - basic and diluted

$

(1.38)

$

(1.35)

$

(3.58)

$

(2.73)

Weighted-average shares outstanding:

Weighted-average common shares used to compute basic and diluted net loss per common share

 

14,981,756

 

12,355,969

 

14,556,986

 

12,178,376

See accompanying notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

7

Table of Contents

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss

(in thousands)

(unaudited)

    

Three Months Ended June 30, 

    

Six Months Ended June 30,

    

2020

    

2019

    

2020

    

2019

Net loss

$

(20,603)

$

(16,628)

$

(52,091)

$

(33,285)

Other comprehensive (loss) income:

Foreign currency translation adjustment

 

(6,565)

 

(9)

 

(278)

 

2,289

Total other comprehensive (loss) income

 

(6,565)

 

(9)

 

(278)

 

2,289

Total comprehensive loss

$

(27,168)

$

(16,637)

$

(52,369)

$

(30,996)

See accompanying notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

8

Table of Contents

Albireo Pharma, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

(in thousands, except share and per share data)

(unaudited)

Accumulated

    

    

  

Additional

    

Other

    

    

Total

Common Stock

Paid-In

Comprehensive

Accumulated

Stockholders’

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Income (loss)

    

Deficit

    

Equity

Balance--December 31, 2019

 

12,749,443

$

127

$

245,769

$

6,452

$

(159,187)

$

93,161

Share based compensation expense

2,381

2,381

Exercise of options and vesting of RSUs

 

37,662

 

 

94

 

94

Issuance of common stock, net of costs

 

2,190,750

 

22

 

42,977

 

 

42,999

Other comprehensive income

 

 

 

 

6,287

 

6,287

Net loss

(31,488)

(31,488)

Balance--March 31, 2020

 

14,977,855

$

149

$

291,221

$

12,739

$

(190,675)

$

113,434

Share based compensation expense

 

 

 

2,603

 

2,603

Exercise of options and vesting of RSUs

 

11,166

 

 

138

 

138

Issuance of warrants

113

113

Other comprehensive loss

 

 

 

 

(6,565)

(6,565)

Net loss

 

 

 

 

(20,603)

(20,603)

Balance--June 30, 2020

14,989,021

$

149

$

294,075

$

6,174

$

(211,278)

$

89,120

Accumulated

    

  

Additional

    

Other

    

    

Total

Common Stock

Paid-In

Comprehensive

Accumulated

Stockholders’

Shares

    

Amount

    

Capital

    

Income (loss)

    

Deficit

    

Equity

Balance--December 31, 2018

11,969,928

$

120

$

214,694

$

4,293

$

(96,470)

$

122,637

Share based compensation expense

1,823

1,823

Exercise of options and vesting of RSUs

68,908

1,290

1,290

Other comprehensive income

2,298

2,298

Net loss

(16,657)

(16,657)

Balance--March 31, 2019

12,038,836

$

120

$

217,807

$

6,591

$

(113,127)

$

111,391

Share based compensation expense

 

 

2,049

 

2,049

Exercise of options and vesting of RSUs

9,123

 

 

110

 

110

Issuance of common stock, net of costs

637,367

 

6

 

20,768

 

20,774

Other comprehensive loss

 

 

 

(9)

(9)

Net loss

 

 

 

(16,628)

(16,628)

Balance--June 30, 2019

12,685,326

$

126

$

240,734

$

6,582

$

(129,755)

$

117,687

See accompanying notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Albireo Pharma, Inc.

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

(in thousands)

(unaudited)

Six Months Ended June 30,

    

2020

    

2019

Cash flows from operating activities:

Net loss

$

(52,091)

$

(33,285)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

  

 

Accretion of liability related to sale of future royalties

 

4,385

  

 

4,075

Accretion of note payable discount and amortization of issuance costs

 

27

  

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

77

  

 

50

Stock-based compensation expense

 

4,984

  

 

3,872

Foreign currency adjustments

93

3,508

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

  

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

1,808

  

 

(1,662)

Other assets

 

171

  

 

(414)

Accounts payable

 

5

  

 

(393)

Accrued expenses

 

(5,313)

  

 

(2,272)

Other current and long-term liabilities

 

(1,008)

  

 

8

Net cash used in operating activities

 

(46,862)

  

 

(26,513)

Cash flows from investing activities:

 

  

 

Purchase of property, plant and equipment

 

(78)

  

 

(409)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

(78)

  

 

(409)

Cash flows from financing activities:

 

  

 

Proceeds from issuance of note payable, net of issuance costs

 

9,521

  

 

Proceeds from issuance of common stock, net of issuance costs

 

42,999

  

 

20,774

Proceeds from royalty agreement, net of issuance costs

 

14,750

  

 

Proceeds from exercise of options and vesting or RSUs

232

1,400

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

67,502

  

 

22,174

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents

 

(385)

  

 

(1,415)

Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

 

20,177

  

 

(6,163)

Cash and cash equivalents—beginning of period

 

131,843

  

 

163,885

Cash and cash equivalents—end of period

$

152,020

$

157,722

Supplemental disclosures of cash and non-cash activities:

 

  

  

 

  

Warrants issued with long-term note payable

$

113

$

Deferred issuance costs included in accrued expenses

$

34

  

$

See accompanying notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements.

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Albireo Pharma, Inc.

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

(unaudited)

1. Summary of significant accounting policies and basis of presentation

Organization

Albireo Pharma, Inc. (the Company) is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of novel bile acid modulators to treat orphan pediatric liver diseases and other liver and gastrointestinal diseases and disorders. The Company’s clinical pipeline includes a Phase 3 product candidate, a Phase 2 product candidate, and elobixibat, which is approved in Japan for the treatment of chronic constipation. Odevixibat, the Company’s Phase 3 lead product candidate, is in development for multiple pediatric cholestatic liver diseases, with an ongoing Phase 3 trial for the treatment of patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC), a pivotal trial initiated for the treatment of patients with biliary atresia, and another pivotal trial for the treatment of patients with Alagille syndrome (ALGS) planned to be initiated by the end of 2020. PFIC, biliary atresia and ALGS are each a rare, life-threatening genetic disorder affecting young children.

Basis of presentation

The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for interim financial information, and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements and should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (including normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for fair presentation have been included in the Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements. The results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full fiscal year, any other interim period or any future fiscal year. The condensed consolidated financial statements are prepared on a basis consistent with prior periods.

Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to the authoritative GAAP as found in the Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) and Accounting Standards Update (ASU) of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB).

Principles of consolidation

The accompanying Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements include the accounts of the Company and its direct or indirect wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

Foreign currency translation

Functional currency

Items included in the financial statements of each entity comprising the Company are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (the functional currency).

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Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions in each entity comprising the Company are remeasured into the functional currency of the entity using the exchange rates prevailing at the respective transaction dates. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the remeasurement at period-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognized within other operating (income) expense, net in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.

The results and financial position of the Company that have a functional currency different from the USD are translated into the presentation currency as follows:

a.assets and liabilities presented are translated at the closing exchange rate as of June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019;
b.income and expenses for each statement of comprehensive loss are translated at the average exchange rate for the applicable period; and
c.significant transactions use the closing exchange rate on the date of the transaction.

All resulting exchange differences arising from such translations are recognized directly in other comprehensive income (loss) and presented as a separate component of equity.

Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Management must apply significant judgment in this process. On an ongoing basis, the Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions, including but not limited to accruals, and the accretion of interest on the monetization liability. Actual results could materially differ from these estimates.

Revenue recognition

Milestone Payments

At the inception of each arrangement that includes development milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether the milestones are considered probable of being achieved and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within the control of the Company or the licensee, such as regulatory approvals, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. The Company evaluates factors such as the scientific, clinical, regulatory, commercial, and other risks that must be overcome to achieve the particular milestone in making this assessment. There is considerable judgment involved in determining whether it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the Company reevaluates the probability of achievement of all milestones subject to constraint and, if necessary, adjusts its estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect revenues and earnings in the period of adjustment.

Royalties

For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on a level of sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties relate, the Company recognizes revenue at the later of (i) when the related sales occur, or (ii) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).

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In 2012, the Company entered into a license agreement (the Agreement) with EA Pharma Co., Ltd. (EA Pharma, formerly Ajinomoto Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd.) to develop a select product candidate (elobixibat) for registration and subsequent commercialization in select markets. In conjunction with the Agreement, the Company granted EA Pharma an exclusive license to its intellectual property for development and commercialization activities in the designated field and territories. The Company has completed all of its performance obligations under the Agreement.

As of June 30, 2020, the Company is eligible to receive an additional regulatory-based milestone payment under the Agreement of $4.8 million if a specified regulatory event is achieved for elobixibat. The cash payments and any other payments for milestones and royalties from EA Pharma are non-refundable, non-creditable and not subject to set-off.

The Agreement will continue until the last royalty period for any product in the territory, which is defined as the period when there are no remaining patent rights or regulatory exclusivity in place for any products subject to royalties. EA Pharma may terminate the Agreement upon 180 days’ prior written notice to the Company. Either party may terminate the Agreement for the other party’s uncured material breach or insolvency and in certain other circumstances agreed to by the parties.

Monetization of Future Royalties

In December 2017, the Company entered into a royalty interest acquisition agreement (RIAA) with HealthCare Royalty Partners III, L.P. (HCR) pursuant to which it sold to HCR the right to receive all royalties from sales in Japan and sales milestones achieved from any covered territory potentially payable to the Company under the Agreement, up to a specified maximum “cap” amount of $78.8 million, based on the funds the Company received from HCR. In January 2018, the Company received $44.5 million from HCR, net of certain transaction expenses, under the RIAA. On June 8, 2020, the parties entered into an amendment to the RIAA pursuant to which HCR agreed to pay the Company an additional $14.8 million, net of certain transactions expenses, in exchange for the elimination of the (i) $78.8 million cap amount on HCR’s rights to receive royalties on sales in Japan and sales milestones for elobixibat in certain other territories that may become payable by EA Pharma and (ii) the $15.0 million payable to the Company if a specified sales milestone is achieved for elobixibat in Japan. The Company is obligated to make royalty interest payments to HCR under the RIAA only to the extent it receives future Japanese royalties, sales milestones or other specified payments from EA Pharma. Although the Company sold its rights to receive royalties from the sales of elobixibat in Japan, as a result of its ongoing involvement in the cash flows related to these royalties, the Company will continue to account for these royalties as revenue. The Company recorded net cash totaling $59.3 million as a liability related to sale of future royalties (royalty obligation). The royalty obligation will be amortized using the effective interest rate method.

The following table shows the activity within the liability account for the six month period ended June 30, 2020:

    

June 30, 2020

    

(in thousands) 

Liability related to sale of future royalties—beginning balance

 

$

55,144

Proceeds from sale of future royalties, net

14,750

Foreign currency translation loss

(239)

Accretion of interest expense on liability related to royalty monetization

4,385

Repayment of the liability

(7,778)

Liability related to sale of future royalties—ending balance

 

$

66,262

Less current portion classified within accrued expenses

(1,911)

Net ending liability related to sale of future royalties

 

$

64,351

The Company records estimated royalties due for the current period in accrued other until the payment is received from EA Pharma at which time the Company then remits payment to HCR. As royalties are remitted to HCR, the balance of the royalty obligation will be effectively repaid over the life of the RIAA. In order to determine the accretion of the royalty obligation, the Company is required to estimate the total amount of future royalty payments to be received and submitted to HCR, as noted above. The sum of these amounts less the $59.3 million proceeds the Company received will be recorded as interest expense over the life of the royalty obligation. At June 30, 2020, the Company’s estimate of its total interest expense resulted in an annual effective interest rate of approximately 20.4%.

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The Company periodically assesses the estimated royalty payments to HCR and to the extent such payments are greater or less than its initial estimates or the timing of such payments is materially different than its original estimates, the Company will prospectively adjust the accretion of interest on the royalty obligation. There are a number of factors that could materially affect the amount and the timing of royalty payments, most of which are not within the Company’s control. Such factors include, but are not limited to, the rate of elobixibat prescriptions, the number of doses administered, the introduction of competing products, manufacturing or other delays, patent protection, adverse events that result in governmental health authority imposed restrictions on the use of the drug products, significant changes in foreign exchange rates as the royalties remitted to HCR are in U.S. dollars while sales of elobixibat are in Japanese yen, and sales never achieving forecasted numbers, which would result in reduced royalty payments and reduced non-cash interest expense over the life of the royalty obligation. To the extent future royalties result in an amount less than the liability, the Company is not obligated to fund any such shortfall.

Recently adopted accounting pronouncements

In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, “Intangibles – Goodwill and Other – Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract.” (ASU 2018-15). This standard aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal-use software license). The guidance also requires the entity to expense the capitalized implementation costs of a hosting arrangement that is a service contract over the term of the hosting arrangement, which includes reasonably certain renewals. The Company adopted this guidance in the first quarter of 2020 on a prospective basis and there was no material impact on its consolidated financial statements.

2. Fair Value of financial instruments

When measuring the fair value of financial instruments, the Company evaluates valuation techniques such as the market approach, the income approach and the cost approach. A three-level valuation hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques that are used to measure fair value, is based upon whether such inputs are observable or unobservable.

Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect market assumptions made by the reporting entity. The three-level hierarchy for the inputs to valuation techniques is briefly summarized as follows:

Level 1—Observable inputs such as quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical instruments in active markets;

Level 2—Observable inputs such as quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, or model-derived valuations whose significant inputs are observable for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities; and

Level 3—Unobservable inputs that reflect the reporting entity’s estimate of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.

3. Commitments and contingencies

Agreements with CROs

As of June 30, 2020, the Company had various agreements with CROs for the conduct of specified research and development activities. Based on the terms of the respective agreements, the Company may be required to make future payments of up to $38.5 million to CROs upon the completion of contracted work.

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4. Net loss per share

Basic net loss per share, or Basic EPS, is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding.

The following table sets forth the computation of Basic EPS and Diluted EPS (in thousands, except for share and per share data):

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Six Months Ended June 30,

    

2020

    

2019

    

2020

    

2019

Basic and Diluted EPS:

Numerator

Net loss

$

(20,603)

  

$

(16,628)

$

(52,091)

  

$

(33,285)

Denominator

 

 

 

 

Weighted average number of shares outstanding

 

14,981,756

 

12,355,969

 

14,556,986

 

12,178,376

Basic and Diluted EPS

$

(1.38)

  

$

(1.35)

$

(3.58)

  

$

(2.73)

The following outstanding common stock equivalents were excluded from the computation of Diluted EPS for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 because including them would have been anti-dilutive:

Three Months Ended June 30,

Six Months Ended June 30,

    

2020

    

2019

    

2020

    

2019

Options to purchase common stock, RSUs and warrants

2,439,930

1,820,351

2,439,930

1,820,351

5. Income taxes

The Company did not record a tax provision or benefit for the six months ended June 30, 2020 or 2019. The Company has continued to maintain a full valuation allowance against its net deferred tax assets. The Company has had an overall net operating loss position since its inception.

6. Note Payable

2020 Loan and Security Agreement

On June 8, 2020, the Company entered into a Loan and Security Agreement (the Loan and Security Agreement) with the several banks and other financial institutions or entities from time to time parties to the Loan and Security Agreement, as lenders (collectively, referred to as the “Lender”), and Hercules Capital, Inc., in its capacity as administrative agent and collateral agent for itself and Lender (in such capacity, the “Agent” or “Hercules”) pursuant to which term loans of up to an aggregate principal amount of up to $80.0 million (the “Term Loans”) are available to the Company. The Loan Agreement provides for (i) an initial term loan advance of $10.0 million, which closed on June 8, 2020, and, at the Company’s option, a right to request that the Lender make an additional term loan advance to the Company in an aggregate principal amount of $5.0 million prior to December 15, 2020, (ii) subject to the achievement of certain initial performance milestones (“Performance Milestone I”), a right of the Borrower to request that the Lender make additional term loan advances to the Company in an aggregate principal amount of up to $20.0 million from January 1, 2021 through December 15, 2021 in minimum increments of $10.0 million, and (iii) subject to the Lender’s investment committee’s sole discretion, a right of the Borrower to request that the Lender make additional term loan advances to the Company in an aggregate principal amount of up to $45.0 million through March 31, 2022 in minimum increments of $5.0 million. The Company is required to pay an end of term fee (“End of Term Charge”) equal to 6.95% of the aggregate principal amount of the Term Loans advances upon repayment.

The Term Loans mature on January 1, 2024, which is extendable to June 1, 2024 upon achievement of Performance Milestone I (the “Maturity Date”).

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The Term Loan bears interest at an annual rate equal to the greater of 9.15% and 9.15% plus the prime rate of interest minus 3.25%. Borrowings under the Loan and Security Agreement are repayable in monthly interest-only payments through January 1, 2022 and extendable to (i) July 1, 2022 upon achievement of Performance Milestone I and (ii) July 1, 2023 upon achievement of certain additional performance milestones. After the interest-only payment period, borrowings under the Loan and Security Agreement are repayable in equal monthly payments of principal and accrued interest until the Maturity Date. At the Company’s option, the Company may elect to prepay all, but not less than all, of the outstanding term loan by paying the entire principal balance and all accrued and unpaid interest thereon plus a prepayment charge equal to the following percentage of the principal amount being prepaid: 3.0% if the term loan is prepaid during the first 6 months following the initial closing date, 2.0% of the principal amount outstanding if the prepayment occurs after the first six months following the Closing Date, but on or prior to 24 months following the Closing Date, and 1.0% of the principal amount outstanding at any time thereafter but prior to the Maturity Date.

In connection with the Loan Agreement, the Company granted Agent a security interest senior to any current and future debts and to any security interest, in all of Borrower’s right, title, and interest in, to and under all of Company’s property and other assets, and certain equity interests and accounts of Albireo AB, subject to limited exceptions including the Borrower’s intellectual property. The Loan Agreement also contains certain events of default, representations, warranties and non-financial covenants of the Company.

Through June 30, 2020, the Company borrowed $10.0 million under the Loan Agreement and incurred $1.3 million of debt discount and issuance costs inclusive of facility fees, legal fees, End of Term Charge and fair value of the warrant. The debt discount and issuance costs are being accreted to the principal amount of debt and being amortized from the date of issuance through the Maturity Date to interest expense using the effective-interest rate method.  The effective interest rate of the outstanding debt under the Loan Agreement is approximately 15.3%.

As of June 30, 2020 the carrying value of the note payable consists of the following:

June 30, 2020

(in thousands)

Note payable, including End of Term Charge

10,695

Debt discount, net of accretion

(1,295)

Note payable net of discount, long-term

$

9,400

During the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, the Company recognized $0.1 million of interest expense related to the Loan Agreement. No interest expense was associated with the Loan Agreement for the three and six months ended June 30, 2019.

Estimated future principal payments due under the Loan Agreement, including the contractual End of Term Charge are as follows as of June 30, 2020:

Note Principal Payments

(in thousands)

Remainder of 2020

    

$

2021

2022

4,553

2023

4,994

2024

1,148

As of June 30, 2020, based on Level 3 inputs and the borrowing rates available to the Company for loans with similar terms and consideration of the Company’s credit risk, the carrying value of the Company’s variable interest rate debt, excluding unamortized debt issuance costs, approximates fair value.

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Warrants

In connection with the entry into the Loan and Security Agreement, the Company will issue to Hercules warrants (the “Warrants”) to purchase a number of shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share (the “Common Stock”) equal to 1% of the aggregate amount of the Term Loans that are funded, as such amounts are funded. On the Closing Date, the Company issued a Warrant for 5,311 shares of Common Stock. The Warrants will be exercisable for a period of seven years from the date of the issuance of each Warrant at a per-share exercise price equal to $18.83, subject to certain adjustments as specified in the Warrants. In addition, the Company has granted to the holders of the Warrants certain registration rights. Specifically, the Company has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts to (i) file registration statements with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission within 60 days following the date of the issuance of each Warrant for purposes of registering the shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise of the Warrants for resale by Hercules, and (ii) cause the registration statement to be declared effective as soon as practicable after filing, and in any event no later than 180 days after the date of the issuance of each Warrant.

The Company accounted for the Warrants as equity instruments since they were indexed to the Company’s common shares and met the criteria for classification in stockholders’ equity. The relative fair value of the Warrants related to the first tranche funding was approximately $0.1 million, and was treated as a discount to the Term Loans. This amount is being amortized to interest expense using the effective interest method over the life of the Term Loans. The Company estimated the fair value of the Warrants using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model.

7. Equity Financings

2020 Underwritten Public Offering

On February 3, 2020, the Company completed an underwritten public offering of 2,190,750 shares of its common stock, which includes the exercise in full of the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares. The Company received net proceeds from this offering of approximately $43.0 million, after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and offering expenses.

8. Stock-based Compensation

For the six months ended June 30, 2020, the Company granted 678,525 options at a weighted average exercise price of $24.39.

The Company recorded the following stock-based compensation expense:

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Six Months Ended June 30,

    

2020

    

2019

    

2020

    

2019

(in thousands)

(in thousands)

Employee awards:

Research and development expense

$

1,042

$

792

$

1,922

$

1,500

General and administrative expense

1,561

1,257

3,062

2,372

Total stock-based compensation expense

$

2,603

$

2,049

$

4,984

$

3,872

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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our condensed consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this quarterly report and our audited financial statements and Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC. In addition to historical information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results, performance or experience could differ materially from what is indicated by any forward-looking statement due to various important factors, risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those set forth under “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” included elsewhere in this quarterly report or under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of Part I of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, in Item 1A of Part II of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, or in other filings that we make with the SEC.

Overview

We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of novel bile acid modulators to treat orphan pediatric liver diseases and other liver or gastrointestinal diseases and disorders. The initial target indication for our lead product candidate, odevixibat (formerly known as A4250), is in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, or PFIC, a rare, life-threatening genetic disorder affecting young children for which there is currently no approved drug treatment. The last patient’s last visit is complete in the Phase 3 trial in PFIC, and we expect topline results in the coming weeks. We are also pursuing the development of odevixibat in biliary atresia and in Alagille syndrome, or ALGS, each of which is a rare, life threatening disease that affects the liver and for which there is no approved pharmacologic treatment option. We initiated a pivotal clinical trial of odevixibat in biliary atresia, the BOLD trial, in the first half of 2020, and have enrolled the first patients in the trial. We plan to initiate a pivotal trial in ALGS by the end of 2020. Our most advanced product candidate in addition to odevixibat is elobixibat, which is approved in Japan for the treatment of chronic constipation and for which we are conducting a Phase 2 clinical trial as a treatment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH. The last patient’s last visit is complete in the Phase 2 trial, and we expect topline results in the coming weeks, ahead of the topline results for the odevixibat Phase 3 trial in PFIC. We are exploring additional clinical development of our product candidate A3384 based on an evaluation of its patent coverage and our overall portfolio. We also have a preclinical program in adult liver disease, and expect to complete investigational new drug enabling studies in a lead preclinical candidate this year.

Odevixibat — our lead product candidate for PFIC. 

We completed a Phase 2, open-label, multicenter study, in which patients received 10‒200 μg/kg oral odevixibat daily for 4 weeks. Twenty patients were enrolled (8 females; 1‒17 years; 4 re-entered at a different dose). Diagnoses included PFIC (n=13; 3 re-entries), Alagille syndrome (n=6), biliary atresia (n=3), and other intrahepatic cholestasis causes (n=2; 1 re-entry). The trial explored changes in serum bile acid levels (primary efficacy endpoint), pruritus using the VAS-itch, Whitington itch, and Partial Patient-Oriented Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (PO-SCORAD) symptom scales, and sleep disturbance. The symptom scales had score ranges as follows: VAS-itch, 0 (no itching) to 10 (worst possible itching); Whitington itch, 0 (no itching) to 4 (cutaneous mutilation, hemorrhage, and scarring evident); PO-SCORAD scales, 0 (no problem at all with itching/sleeping) to 10 (unbearable problem with itching/sleeping). Scores for the previous 24 hours were self- or observer-reported in daily diaries and were averaged over a 7-day period at baseline and at the end of the 4-week treatment period. There were 5 sequentially escalating dose cohorts: 10, 30, 60, 100, or 200 μg/kg.  Improvements in mean pruritus scores across 3 separate scales and in mean sleep scores were observed with all doses of odevixibat at the end of the 4-week treatment period versus baseline, except for the lowest dose investigated. For the total population, mean change in VAS-itch scores was −2.2 (range, −6.1 to 1.7); mean change in PO-SCORAD itch score was −2.0 (range, −6.7 to 1.6); mean change in Whitington itch score was −0.8 (range, −3 to 0.8); and mean change in PO-SCORAD sleep disturbance score was −1.8 (range, −5.8 to 0.9). Similar improvements in pruritus and sleep scores were observed in the subgroup of patients with PFIC. In this subgroup, mean change in VAS-itch scores was −2.7 (range, −5.94 to 0.37); mean change in PO-SCORAD itch score was −2.5 (range, −6 to 0.31); mean change in Whitington itch score was −1.1 (range, −3 to 0.14); and mean change in PO-SCORAD sleep disturbance score was −2.4 (range, −5.77 to 0.37).

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In May 2018, we enrolled the first patient in our Phase 3 clinical trial for odevixibat, given once per day as an oral capsule or sprinkled over food, in patients ages 6 months to 18 years with PFIC types 1 and 2, with 45 global sites recruiting, which we refer to as PEDFIC 1. PEDFIC 1 is testing two doses of odevixibat, 40 µg/kg/day and 120 µg/kg/day, along with placebo, over a treatment period of 24 weeks. In PEDFIC 1, assessment of change in pruritus is the primary endpoint in the U.S. and a key secondary endpoint in the E.U., and serum bile acid (sBA) responder rate is the primary endpoint in the E.U. and a key secondary endpoint in the U.S. We are using the planned commercial formulation in PEDFIC 1, but any commercial product will include final trade dress. In the first quarter of 2019, we revised our statistical analysis methodology for PEDFIC 1, in line with guidance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, which resulted in an improvement in the power of the study. The last patient’s last visit is complete in PEDFIC 1, and we will collect data from 62 out of a planned 60 patients, with no patients lost to follow-up due to COVID-19. We are in the process of analyzing blinded data sets, and expect topline results in the coming weeks. Additionally, we’ve conducted an analysis with experts at our external vendor, IQVIA, Inc. to determine a measurement for a clinically relevant drop in pruritis score. Available data, including blinded pruritis data from the PEDFIC 1 study, has been analyzed using an anchor-based approach, and based on that approach a decrease of 1.0 or more on the 0 to 4-point scale represents a clinically meaningful improvement in pruritis. We continue to plan for a potential approval, issuance of a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher, and commercial launch in the second half of 2021. We also submitted a protocol amendment for PEDFIC 2, our long term, open label extension study, which includes an additional cohort of PFIC patients who are not eligible for PEDFIC 1.  The first sites have been activated and first patients enrolled in the expanded PEDFIC 2 cohort. In July 2020, we initiated an Expanded Access Program (EAP) for odevixibat in the U.S., Canada, Australia and Europe. The EAP is available for patients with a clinical diagnosis of PFIC who have no other therapeutic options and do not qualify for, or have access to, the second cohort in PEDFIC 2. In June 2018, the FDA granted a rare pediatric disease designation to odevixibat for the treatment of PFIC, which affirms our eligibility to apply for a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher upon submission of a new drug application for odevixibat.  In September 2018, the FDA granted fast track designation to odevixibat for the treatment of pruritus associated with PFIC.

The precise prevalence of PFIC is unknown, and we are not aware of any patient registries or other method of establishing with precision the actual number of patients with PFIC in any geography. PFIC has been estimated to affect between one in every 50,000 to 100,000 children born worldwide. Based on the published incidence, published regional populations, and estimated median life expectancies, we estimate the prevalence of PFIC across the spectrum of the disease to be approximately 8,000 to 10,000 patients in the U.S. and E.U., but we are not able to estimate the prevalence of PFIC with precision. We currently have not modeled other regional opportunities in Asia, the Middle East and Latin America. We are aware there may be higher prevalence of disease in some countries such as Saudi Arabia and Turkey. We hold global rights to odevixibat unencumbered. Our current plan is to commercialize odevixibat ourselves in the U.S. and E.U., and we have begun the process of identifying potential partners for other regions. There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of PFIC. First-line treatment for PFIC is typically off-label ursodeoxycholic acid, or UDCA, which is approved in the U.S. and elsewhere for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis, or PBC. However, many PFIC patients do not respond well to UDCA, undergo partial external bile diversion, or PEBD, surgery and often require liver transplantation. PEBD surgery is a life-altering and undesirable procedure in which bile is drained outside the body to a stoma bag that must be worn by the patient 24 hours a day.

Other indications under development for Odevixibat. We are also pursuing the development of odevixibat in patients with biliary atresia, another rare, life-threatening disease that affects the liver and for which there is no approved pharmacologic treatment option. In December 2018, the European Commission granted orphan designation to odevixibat for the treatment of biliary atresia, and in January 2019, the FDA granted orphan drug designation to odevixibat for the treatment of biliary atresia. We initiated the BOLD clinical trial, a global pivotal trial and the largest prospective intervention trial ever conducted in biliary atresia, in the first half of 2020. The first patients have been enrolled in the trial, and we plan for full site activation in the first half of 2021, but will monitor any impacts of COVID-19 on the enrollment. We believe biliary atresia is one of the most common rare pediatric liver diseases, and is the leading cause of liver transplants in children. Our double-blind, placebo controlled pivotal trial in biliary atresia is designed to enroll approximately 200 patients at 70 sites globally. Patients will receive either placebo or high-dose (120µg/kg) odevixibat once daily. The primary endpoint is survival with native liver after two years of treatment.

Biliary atresia is a partial or total blocking or absence of large bile ducts that causes cholestasis and resulting accumulation of bile that damages the liver. The estimated worldwide incidence of biliary atresia is between 4.5 and 8.5

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for every 100,000 live births. We estimate the prevalence of biliary atresia to be approximately 15,000 to 20,000 patients in the U.S. and E.U., but we are not able to estimate the prevalence of biliary atresia with precision. There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of biliary atresia. The current standard of care is a surgery known as the Kasai procedure, or hepatoportoenterostomy, in which the obstructed bile ducts are removed and a section of the small intestine is connected to the liver directly. However, only an estimated 25% of those initially undergoing the Kasai procedure will survive to their twenties without need for liver transplantation.

In addition, we have had productive discussions with the FDA and European Commission and have come to agreement on a single pivotal study design for odevixibat in ALGS, and we plan to initiate the trial by the end of 2020. We expect topline data to be available between the announcements of the topline results from the PEDFIC 1 and BOLD clinical trials. ALGS is a genetic condition associated with liver, heart, eye, kidney and skeletal abnormalities. In particular, ALGS patients have fewer than normal bile ducts inside the liver, which leads to cholestasis and the accumulation of bile and causes scarring in the liver. ALGS is estimated to affect between one in every 30,000 to 70,000 children born worldwide. We estimate the prevalence of ALGS to be approximately 3,000 to 5,000 patients in the U.S. and E.U., but we are not able to estimate the prevalence of ALGS with precision. There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of ALGS. Current treatment for ALGS is generally in line with current treatments for PFIC as described above. In August 2012, the European Commission granted orphan designation to odevixibat for the treatment of ALGS. In October 2018, the FDA granted orphan drug designation to odevixibat for the treatment of ALGS.

We continue to evaluate potential clinical development in other indications, including primary sclerosing cholangitis, which refers to swelling (inflammation), scarring, and destruction of bile ducts inside and outside of the liver. The first symptoms are typically fatigue, itching and jaundice, and many patients with sclerosing cholangitis also suffer from inflammatory bowel disease. The estimated incidence of primary sclerosing cholangitis is 6.3 cases per 100,000 people. There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of sclerosing cholangitis. First-line treatment is typically off-label UDCA, although UDCA has not been established to be safe and effective in patients with sclerosing cholangitis in well controlled clinical trials.

Elobixibat as a potential treatment for NASH. NASH is a common, serious and sometimes fatal chronic liver disease that resembles alcoholic liver disease but occurs in people who drink little or no alcohol. Based on multiple epidemiological studies published by third parties in 2014 and 2015, we estimate that NASH affects 2 to 3.5% of adults, representing over 9 million people in the United States and 10 million people in the E.U. There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of NASH. Lifestyle changes, including modification of diet and exercise to reduce body weight, as well as treatment of concomitant diabetes and dyslipidemia, are commonly accepted as the standard of care for NASH, but have not conclusively been shown to prevent disease progression. Based on findings on parameters relevant to NASH in clinical trials of elobixibat that we previously conducted in patients with chronic constipation and in patients with elevated cholesterol and findings on other parameters relevant to NASH from nonclinical studies that we previously conducted with elobixibat or a different IBAT inhibitor, we believe elobixibat has potential benefit in the treatment of NASH. Prior to the last patient’s last visit in the PEDFIC trial, the last patient’s last visit was completed in our Phase 2 proof of concept clinical trial of elobixibat in NAFLD and NASH. The trial is designed to assess the combination of improvements in parameters like lipids, glucose, liver inflammation, liver fibrosis and elevated bile acids with a favorable gastrointestinal tolerability profile. We are analyzing full blinded data sets from 43 out of 47 patients, with some data on 4 patients being lost to follow up due primarily to COVID-19, and expect topline results in the coming weeks. In addition, we expect data from a second investigator-initiated study through our partner EA Pharma, which is being conducted in a targeted 100 patients in Japan with elobixibat 10mg and in combination with a bile acid sequestrant, later this year or in early 2021, which we expect will add to the overall pool of data for elobixibat in NAFLD/NASH.

Since inception, we have incurred significant operating losses. As of June 30, 2020, we had an accumulated deficit of $211.3 million. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses as we continue our development of, and seek marketing approvals for, our product candidates, prepare for and begin the commercialization of any approved products, and add infrastructure and personnel to support our product development efforts and operations as a public company in the United States.

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As a clinical-stage company, our revenues, expenses and results of operations are likely to fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter and year to year. We believe that period-to-period comparisons of our results of operations should not be relied upon as indicative of our future performance.

As of June 30, 2020, we had approximately $152.0 million in cash and cash equivalents.

Financial Operations Overview

The following discussion sets forth certain components of our consolidated statements of operations as well as factors that impact those items.

Revenue

We generate revenue primarily from the receipt of royalty revenue, upfront or license fees and milestone payments. License agreements with commercial partners generally include nonrefundable upfront fees and milestone payments, the receipt of which is dependent upon the achievement of specified development, regulatory or commercial milestone events, as well as royalties on product sales of licensed products, if and when such product sales occur. For additional information about our revenue recognition, refer to Note 1 to our condensed consolidated financial statements included in this quarterly report.

Operating Expenses

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel costs (including salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation) for employees in research and development functions, costs associated with nonclinical and clinical development services, including clinical trials and related manufacturing costs, third-party contract research organizations, or CROs, and related services and other outside costs, including fees for third-party professional services such as consultants. Our nonclinical studies and clinical studies are performed by CROs. We expect to continue to focus our research and development efforts on nonclinical studies and clinical trials of our product candidates. As a result, we expect our research and development expenses to continue to increase for the foreseeable future.

Our direct research and development expenses are tracked on a program-by-program basis and consist primarily of external costs such as fees paid to CROs and others in connection with our nonclinical and clinical development activities and related manufacturing. We do not allocate employee costs or facility expenses, including depreciation or other indirect costs, to specific product development programs because these costs are deployed across multiple product development programs and, as such, are not separately classified.

Successful development of our current and potential future product candidates is highly uncertain. Completion dates and costs for our programs can vary significantly by product candidate and are difficult to predict. As a result, we cannot estimate with any degree of certainty the costs we will incur in connection with development of any of our product candidates. We anticipate we will make determinations as to which programs and product candidates to pursue and how much funding to direct to each program and product candidate on an ongoing basis in response to the results of ongoing and future clinical trials, our ability to enter into licensing, collaboration and similar arrangements with respect to current or potential future product candidates, the success of research and development programs and our assessments of commercial potential.

General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel costs (including salaries, benefits and stock-based compensation) for our executive, finance and other administrative employees. In addition, general and administrative expenses include fees for third-party professional services, including consulting, information technology, legal and accounting services and other corporate expenses and allocated overhead.

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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Our management’s discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations is based on our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles for interim financial information. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. We base our estimates and assumptions on historical experience and on various assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, and we evaluate them on an ongoing basis. These estimates and assumptions form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the recording of revenues and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results and experiences may differ materially from these estimates and judgments. In addition, our reported financial condition and results of operations could vary if new accounting standards are enacted that are applicable to our business. Our critical accounting policies and the methodologies and assumptions we apply under them have not materially changed since March 2, 2020, the date we filed our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019. For more information on our critical accounting policies, refer to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.

Results of Operations

Three Months Ended June 30, 2020 and June 30, 2019

Result of Operations

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Change

2020

    

2019

    

$

(in thousands)

Revenue

$

1,912

$

1,250

$

662

Operating Expenses

Research and development

18,397

11,034

7,363

General and Administrative

8,474

5,485

2,989

Other operating (income) expense, net

(6,744)

8

(6,752)

Total operating expenses

20,127

16,527

3,600

Operating loss

(18,215)

(15,277)

(2,938)

Interest expense, net

(2,388)

(1,351)

(1,037)

Net loss

$

(20,603)

$

(16,628)

$

(3,975)

Revenue

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2020

    

2019

    

$

(in thousands)

Revenue

$

1,912

$

1,250

$

662

There was $1.9 million in revenue for the three months ended June 30, 2020 compared with $1.3 million for the three months ended June 30, 2019, an increase of $0.7 million. The higher revenue is due to the estimated royalty revenue received from EA Pharma for elobixibat for the treatment of chronic constipation.

Research and development expenses

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2020

    

2019

    

$

(in thousands)

Research and development expenses

$

18,397

$

11,034

$

7,363

Research and development expenses were $18.4 million for the three months ended June 30, 2020 compared with $11.0 million for the three months ended June 30, 2019, an increase of $7.4 million. The increased research and

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development expenses for the 2020 period were principally due to personnel expenses, and program expenses as we continue to increase our headcount, and program activities, respectively.

The following table summarizes our principal product development programs and the out-of-pocket third-party expenses incurred with respect to each clinical-stage product candidate and our preclinical programs for the three months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019.

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2020

    

2019

    

$

(in thousands)

Direct third-party project costs:

Odevixibat

$

11,004

$

4,469

$

6,535

Elobixibat

 

889

 

1,148

 

(259)

A3384

 

34

 

151

 

(117)

Preclinical

 

1,188

 

1,317

 

(129)

Total

$

13,115

$

7,085

$

6,030

Other project costs(1):

Personnel costs

$

4,632

$

2,770

$

1,862

Other costs(2)

 

650

 

1,179

 

(529)

Total

$

5,282

$

3,949

$

1,333

Total research and development costs

$

18,397

$

11,034

$

7,363

(1)Other project costs are leveraged across multiple programs.
(2)Other costs include facility, supply, consultant and overhead costs that support multiple programs.

General and administrative expenses

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2020

    

2019

    

$

(in thousands)

General and administrative expenses

$

8,474

$

5,485

$

2,989

General and administrative expenses were $8.5 million for the three months ended June 30, 2020 compared with $5.5 million for the three months ended June 30, 2019, an increase of $3.0 million. The increase is attributable to personnel and related expenses as we continue to increase our headcount, and commercialization readiness activity.

Other operating (income) expense, net

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2020

    

2019

    

$

(in thousands)

Other operating (income) expense, net

$

(6,744)

$

8

$

(6,752)

Other operating income, net totaled $6.7 million for the three months ended June 30, 2020 compared with $0.0 million for the three months ended June 30, 2019. The difference primarily relates to changes in exchange rates in the two periods.

Interest expense, net

Three Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2020

    

2019

    

$

(in thousands)

Interest expense, net

$

(2,388)

$

(1,351)

$

(1,037)

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Interest expense, net totaled $2.4 million of expense for the three months ended June 30, 2020 compared with $1.4 million for the three months ended June 30, 2019. The difference was principally attributable to non-cash interest expense recorded in connection with the sale of future royalties, related to sales of elobixibat in Japan offset by interest income associated with our interest bearing cash and cash equivalents.

Six Months Ended June 30, 2020 and June 30, 2019

Result of Operations

Six Months Ended June 30, 

Change

2020

    

2019

    

$

(in thousands)

Revenue

$

3,461

$

1,820

$

1,641

Operating Expenses

Research and development

34,527

19,363

15,164

General and Administrative

16,627

10,778

5,849

Other operating (income) expense, net

72

2,304

(2,232)

Total operating expenses

51,226

32,445

18,781

Operating loss

(47,765)

(30,625)

(17,140)

Interest expense, net

(4,326)

(2,660)

(1,666)

Net loss

$

(52,091)

$

(33,285)

$

(18,806)

Revenue

Six Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2020

    

2019

    

$

(in thousands)

Revenue

$

3,461

$

1,820

$

1,641

There was $3.5 million in revenue for the six months ended June 30, 2020 compared with $1.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2019, an increase of $1.6 million. The increase in revenue is due to the estimated royalty revenue from EA Pharma for elobixibat for the period.

Research and development expenses

Six Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2020

    

2019

    

$

(in thousands)

Research and development expenses

$

34,527

$

19,363

$

15,164

There was $34.5 million in research and development expenses for the six months ended June 30, 2020 compared with $19.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2019, an increase of $15.2 million. The higher research and development expenses for the 2020 period were principally due to personnel expenses, and program expenses as we continue to increase our headcount, and program activities, respectively.

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The following table summarizes our principal product development programs and the out-of-pocket third-party expenses incurred with respect to each clinical-stage product candidate and our preclinical programs for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019.

Six Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2020

    

2019

    

$

(in thousands)

Direct third-party project costs:

Odevixibat

$

19,693

$

7,833

$

11,860

Elobixibat

 

1,757

 

1,371

 

386

A3384

 

93

 

225

 

(132)

Preclinical

 

2,483

 

2,320

 

163

Total

$

24,026

$

11,749

$

12,277

Other project costs(1):

Personnel costs

$

8,595

$

5,470

$

3,125

Other costs(2)

 

1,906

 

2,144

 

(238)

Total

$

10,501

$

7,614

$

2,887

Total research and development costs

$

34,527

$

19,363

$

15,164

(1)Other project costs are leveraged across multiple programs.
(2)Other costs include facility, supply, consultant and overhead costs that support multiple programs.

General and administrative expenses

Six Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2020

    

2019

    

$

(in thousands)

General and administrative expenses

$

16,627

$

10,778

$

5,849

There was $16.6 million in general and administrative expenses for the six months ended June 30, 2020 compared with $10.8 million for the six months ended June 30, 2019, an increase of $5.8 million. The increase is attributable to personnel and related expenses as we continue to increase our headcount, and commercialization readiness activity.

Other operating expense, net

Six Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2020

    

2019

    

$

(in thousands)

Other operating (income) expense, net

$

72

$

2,304

$

(2,232)

Other operating expense, net totaled $0.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020 compared with $2.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2019. The difference resulted primarily from changes in currency exchange rates in the two periods.

Interest expense, net

Six Months Ended June 30, 

Change

    

2020

    

2019

    

$

(in thousands)

Interest expense, net

$

(4,326)

$

(2,660)